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Use value or value in use is the utility of consuming a good; the want-satisfying power of a good or service in classical political economy. [ 1 ] In Marx's critique of political economy , any labor-product has a value and a use-value, and if it is traded as a commodity in markets, it additionally has an exchange value , most often expressed as a money- price . [ 2 ] Marx acknowledges that commodities being traded also have a general utility , implied by the fact that people want them, but he argues that this by itself tells us nothing about the specific character of the economy in which they are produced and sold. [ edit ] Origin of the concept The concepts of value, use value, utility, exchange value and price have a very long history in economic and philosophical thought, from Aristotle to Adam Smith , and their meanings evolved.
Whuffie is the ephemeral, reputation-based currency of Cory Doctorow 's science fiction novel Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom and his short story Truncat . This book describes a post-scarcity economy : All the necessities (and most of the luxuries) of life are free for the taking. A person's current Whuffie is instantly viewable to anyone, as everybody has a brain-implant giving them an interface with the Net.
Brownie points in modern usage are a hypothetical social currency , which can be acquired by doing good deeds or earning favor in the eyes of another, often one's superior. [ edit ] Conjectures for etymology [ edit ] Brown Stamps A popular marketing practice employed by many stores in post-World War II America was the distribution of stamps with each purchase. The number of stamps given out varied with the amount of the purchase.
A gift economy , gift culture or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards. [ 1 ] In contrast to a barter economy or a market economy , social norms and custom govern gift exchange, rather than an explicit exchange of goods or services for money or some other commodity . [ 2 ] Gift exchange is frequently " embedded " in political, kin, or religious institutions, and therefore does not constitute an "economic" system per se. [ 3 ] According to Parry, discussion on the nature of "gifts", and of a separate sphere of "gift" exchange that would constitute an "economic system," has been plagued by the ethnocentric use of modern, western, market society-based conception of the gift applied as if it is a cross-cultural, pan-historical universal.
Anarcho-syndicalist flag. Anarcho-syndicalism (also referred to as revolutionary syndicalism [ 1 ] ) is a branch of anarchism which views revolutionary industrial unionism or syndicalism as an appropriate vehicle for subjugated classes in capitalist society to regain control over the course of their own destiny. Syndicalism is viewed both as a strategy for facilitating worker self-activity and as being an alternative co-operative economic system upon which to base a democratic regime of production for the satisfaction of human need once the injustices understood to be inherent to capitalist society have been overcome.
Libertarian socialism (sometimes called social anarchism [ 1 ] [ 2 ] or left-libertarianism ) [ 3 ] [ 4 ] is a group of political philosophies that promote a non-hierarchical, non-bureaucratic society without private property in the means of production . Libertarian socialists believe in converting present-day private productive property into common or public goods , while retaining respect for personal property . [ 5 ] Libertarian socialism is opposed to coercive forms of social organization. It promotes free association in place of government and opposes the social relations of capitalism, such as wage labor . [ 6 ] The term libertarian socialism is used by some socialists to differentiate their philosophy from state socialism , [ 7 ] [ 8 ] and by some as a synonym for left anarchism . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 9 ]
Autonomism or Autonomous Marxism is a set of left-wing political and social movements and theories identified with the socialist movement . As a theoretical system, it first emerged in Italy in the 1960s from workerist ( operaismo ) communism . Later, post-Marxist and anarchist tendencies became significant after influence from the Situationists , the failure of Italian far-left movements in the 1970s, and the emergence of a number of important theorists including Antonio Negri , who had contributed to the 1969 founding of Potere Operaio , as well as Mario Tronti , Paolo Virno , Franco Berardi "Bifo" , etc. Strongly influenced by the German Frankfurt School socialists , it likewise influenced the Dutch Autonomen, the worldwide social centre movement , and today is influential in Italy, France, and to a lesser extent the English-speaking countries.
Gold-collar worker (GCW) is a neologism which has been used to describe either young, low-wage workers who invest in conspicuous luxury , [ 1 ] or highly-skilled knowledge workers , traditionally classified as white collar , but who have recently become essential enough to business operations as to warrant a new classification. [ edit ] Low wage, luxury seeking These are 18 to 25 year-old persons in a position to divert a significant portion of their earnings towards material luxuries. They typically have fewer than 2 years of post-high school education. Like their counterparts attending college , they are often employed as retail workers or in the hospitality industry , particularly food service as servers. This group tends to have more disposable income than college students, who often pay high tuition costs, take on a number of financial loans, and often move away from their parents.
Yuppie (short for " young urban professional " [ 1 ] [ 2 ] is a term that refers to a member of the upper middle class or upper class in their 20s or 30s. [ 3 ] It first came into use in the early 1980s and largely faded from American popular culture in the late 1980s, due to the 1987 stock market crash and the early 1990s recession . [ citation needed ] However it has been used in the 2000s and 2010s, in places such as in National Review , The Weekly Standard and Details . [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ edit ] Characteristics Yuppies are mocked for their conspicuous personal consumption and hunger for social status among their peers.
Free love is a social movement that rejects marriage , which is seen as a form of social bondage. The Free Love movement’s initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control , and adultery . It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else. [ 1 ] Much of the free-love tradition is an offshoot of anarchism , and reflects a libertarian philosophy that seeks freedom from state regulation and church interference in personal relationships . According to this concept, the free unions of adults are legitimate relations which should be respected by all third parties whether they are emotional or sexual relations.
Zeno of Citium Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. The Stoics taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a sage , or person of "moral and intellectual perfection," would not suffer such emotions. [ 1 ] Stoics were concerned with the active relationship between cosmic determinism and human freedom , and the belief that it is virtuous to maintain a will (called prohairesis ) that is in accord with nature. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life, and they thought that the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how he behaved. [ 2 ]
Adiaphoron (plural: adiaphora from the Greek ἀδιάφορα "indifferent things") is a concept of Stoic philosophy that indicates things outside of moral law —that is, actions that morality neither mandates nor forbids. In Christianity , adiaphora are matters not regarded as essential to faith , but nevertheless as permissible for Christians or allowed in church. What is specifically considered adiaphora depends on the specific theology in view. [ edit ] Stoicism The Stoics distinguished all the objects of human pursuit into four classes.
The Wars of the Diadochi (or Wars of Alexander's Successors), ( Greek : Πόλεμος των Διαδόχων, Polemos ton Diadochon ) were a series of conflicts fought between Alexander the Great 's generals over the rule of his vast empire , after his death. They occurred between 322 and 275 BC. [ edit ] Background When Alexander the Great died (June 10, 323 BC), he left behind a huge empire which was composed of many essentially independent territories. Alexander's empire stretched from his homeland of Macedon itself, along with the Greek city-states that his father had subdued, to Bactria and parts of India in the east. It included Anatolia , the Levant , Egypt , Babylonia , and Persia .
Coordinates : Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή , Anatolē — "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia Minor (from Greek : Μικρὰ Ἀσία Mikrá Asía "small Asia"; in modern Turkish: Anadolu ), Asian Turkey , Anatolian peninsula , Anatolian plateau , and Turkey , denotes the westernmost protrusion of Asia , comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey . [ 1 ] The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits, and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland.
Adiaphoron (plural: adiaphora from the Greek ἀδιάφορα "indifferent things") is a concept of Stoic philosophy that indicates things outside of moral law —that is, actions that morality neither mandates nor forbids. In Christianity , adiaphora are matters not regarded as essential to faith , but nevertheless as permissible for Christians or allowed in church. What is specifically considered adiaphora depends on the specific theology in view.