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In quantum physics , Fermi's golden rule is a way to calculate the transition rate (probability of transition per unit time) from one energy eigenstate of a quantum system into a continuum of energy eigenstates, due to a perturbation . We consider the system to begin in an eigenstate , , of a given Hamiltonian ,
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle that no two identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin ) may occupy the same quantum state simultaneously. A more rigorous statement is that the total wave function for two identical fermions is anti-symmetric with respect to exchange of the particles. The principle was formulated by Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925.
The de Broglie relations redirect here. In quantum mechanics , the concept of matter waves or de Broglie waves ( pron.: / d ə ˈ b r ɔɪ / ) reflects the wave–particle duality of matter .
The holographic principle is a property of quantum gravity and string theories which states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a boundary to the region—preferably a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon .
In particle physics and physical cosmology , the Planck scale (named after Max Planck ) is an energy scale around 1.22 × 10 19 GeV (which corresponds by the mass–energy equivalence to the Planck mass 2.17645 × 10 −8 kg) at which quantum effects of gravity become strong. At this scale, present descriptions and theories of sub-atomic particle interactions in terms of quantum field theory break down and become inadequate, due to the impact of the apparent non-renormalizability of gravity within current theories. At the Planck scale, the strength of gravity is expected to become comparable with the other forces, and it is theorized that all the fundamental forces are unified at that scale, but the exact mechanism of this unification remains unknown.
In quantum mechanics , the uncertainty principle is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p , can be known simultaneously. For instance, the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa. [ 1 ] The original heuristic argument that such a limit should exist was given by Werner Heisenberg in 1927, after whom it is sometimes named the Heisenberg principle .
Physicist : Nopers! The Heisenberg uncertainty principle, while normally presented in physics circles, is actually a mathematical absolute.
Quantum mechanics (QM – also known as quantum physics , or quantum theory ) is a branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena at microscopic scales, where the action is on the order of the Planck constant . Quantum mechanics departs from classical mechanics primarily at the quantum realm of atomic and subatomic length scales.