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Diabetes and Insulin Resistance

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These links deal with Type 2 Diabetes.

My understanding of Type 1 Diabetes is that it is an autoimmune disease, in which case perhaps that group of resources may be of interest. (I am not a medical doctor and don't follow the research in this area, so I might be wrong about this.)

Interactions of microbiome, diet, and genetics modulate predispostion to diabetes and metabolic syndrome — The American Microbiome Institute. Intestinal Permeability and Visceral Fat Accumulation. Prebiotics Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

This is a post from the Gut Critters blog that ended November 18, 2016. Ray Medina gave permission for his material to be copied as long as it was attributed to him and not used for commercial purposes. – kiraonysko

Endotoxemia And Diabetes Risk. Insulin Resistance. Poop swaps, insulin resistance, and Resistant Starch. File this under: “Why aren’t we talking more about this?!”

Poop swaps, insulin resistance, and Resistant Starch

They took 18 obese men exhibiting metabolic syndrome and gave them fecal transplants (if you aren’t familiar with what that is, well, it’s exactly what it sounds like — completely replaces your microbiota with that of a donor). HALF of the obese men received a transplant from a lean, healthy donor. The other half, however, was a control — they simply had their own microbiota reimplanted. One of the study’s findings, even before the experiment was carried out, is pretty interesting. They found that the obese men had less overall microbial diversity, more bacteroidetes, and significantly less bacteria from Clostridia cluster XIVa. But on to the experiment. Well, in observing the differences between the lean-donor recipients and the self-donor recipients, they found a few things: lean-donor recipients had more overall diversity. They also found an increase in E. halli, another major butyrate producer in Clostridia XIVa. . — Heisenbug. Targeting gut microbiota as a possible therapy for diabetes.

New diabetes drug incorporates microbiome therapy — The American Microbiome Institute. Chemical formula of metformin MicroBiome Therapeutics is an early stage company based in Broomfield, CO that is developing drugs that affect the microbiome in beneficial ways.

New diabetes drug incorporates microbiome therapy — The American Microbiome Institute

They are currently investigating diabetes and obesity, which has led them to study the diabetes drug metformin. Metformin is the most popular drug for people with type 2 diabetes, however it often causes diarrhea in 20% of those who take it. MicroBiome Therapeutics has developed a drug that is a combination of metformin and a proprietary secondary component (maybe a probiotic or prebiotic of some sort?). In recent clinical trials their drug proved to help diabetic patients better control their blood glucose levels than metformin with a placebo co-administered. This is very exciting news not only for diabetics but for microbiome scientists. Please email blog@MicrobiomeInstitute.org for any comments, news, or ideas for new blog posts.

Prevotella in the gut appears to improve glucose tolerance — The American Microbiome Institute. The scientists gave 39 subjects white bread and barley bread for three consecutive days and measured their glucose and insulin responses to the diets.

Prevotella in the gut appears to improve glucose tolerance — The American Microbiome Institute

For the most part, the barley bread was associated with an improved response over white bread, but some of the individuals’ responded with a much more stark improvement than others. Microbiome affects blood glucose levels after eating, can help predict glycemic response to foods — The American Microbiome Institute. The researchers catalogued 800 peoples’ meals over 7 days while continuously measuring their blood glucose levels.

Microbiome affects blood glucose levels after eating, can help predict glycemic response to foods — The American Microbiome Institute

In addition they monitored their gut microbiota, weight, sleep, and various other lifestyle factors. After evaluating the data, the scientists realized that identical foods had vastly different PPGRs. For example, bread could have a 8 fold variation in glycemic response depending on the individual. Ingesting blueberries and oats may modulate the microbiome and help diabetics — The American Microbiome Institute.

Prebiotics are foods that are consumed in order to modulate the microbiome.

Ingesting blueberries and oats may modulate the microbiome and help diabetics — The American Microbiome Institute

They are normally composed of molecules that are not broken down by our body itself, but rather that remain intact until making it to the large intestine where bacteria can break them down. Common prebiotics come from plant materials, like long chained complex carbohydrates, as well as polyphenols, like blueberry extract. In a recent study, scientists from Louisiana State University performed randomized dietary intervention on obese subjects and gave them a mixture of these molecules.

The Gut Impacts Diabetic Management Tomorrow: The Recent Messages from Intestine and Microbiota. The Fascinating Link Between Type-1 Diabetes and the Human Gut. Butyrate may have a protective effect in the development of type 1 diabetes - Gut Microbiota for Health. It has been previously reported that the gut microbiota could be involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as diabetes.

Butyrate may have a protective effect in the development of type 1 diabetes - Gut Microbiota for Health

A recent study, led by Dr. Wolfgang zu Castell from the Scientific Computing Research Unit at Helmholtz Zentrum München in Munich (Germany) has found that butyrate may have a protective effect in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing worldwide, showing a particularly sharp increase among children under the age of 5 years. Microbiome changed by gluten increases incidences of type 1 diabetes.

Research has shown that the intestinal microbiome plays a large role in the development of Type 1 diabetes.

Microbiome changed by gluten increases incidences of type 1 diabetes

Now, researchers at Mayo Clinic have demonstrated that gluten in the diet may modify the intestinal microbiome, increasing incidences of Type 1 diabetes. The research was published Nov. 13, in the journal PLOS ONE. Should women with gestational diabetes mellitus use probiotics? - Gut Microbiota for Health. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most frequent metabolic complications of pregnancy and its prevalence is up to 12% in developed countries.

Should women with gestational diabetes mellitus use probiotics? - Gut Microbiota for Health

Nowadays, several studies are investigating new therapies for glucose control that may complement diet, exercise, and pharmacological therapies. Among them, probiotics potentially represent a novel way to improve maternal metabolic and pregnancy outcomes. However, there are scarce randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to date that have directly investigated the glycemic effects of probiotics among women with GDM. In addition, the studies that have been completed have reported a mix of positive and null outcomes. Noticeably, studies that investigate the effect of probiotics when taken after diagnosis of GDM are scarce.