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Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality , existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument . [ 3 ] In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group". [ 4 ] The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία ( philosophia ), which literally means "love of wisdom". [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras . [ 8 ] A "philosopher" was understood as a word which contrasted with " sophist ".
Religious activities around the world Religion is an organized collection of belief systems , cultural systems , and world views that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values . [ note 1 ] Many religions have narratives , symbols , traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the Universe . From their ideas about the cosmos and human nature , they tend to derive morality , ethics , religious laws or a preferred lifestyle .