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Why do some people never get depressed? 30 January 2012Last updated at 12:23 By Geoff Watts BBC World Service Confronted with some of life's upsetting experiences - marriage breakdown, unemployment, bereavement, failure of any kind - many people become depressed.

Why do some people never get depressed?

But others don't. Why is this? A person who goes through experiences like that and does not get depressed has a measure of what in the psychiatric trade is known as "resilience". According to Manchester University psychologist Dr Rebecca Elliott, we are all situated somewhere on a sliding scale. Planning a Conference. Home » Resources » Leadership Exercises & Tips » Plan an Event, Conference, or Retreat » Planning a Conference Planning a Conference Planning a conference is really not as complicated as it may appear.

Planning a Conference

If you plan to host a conference, approach this task as you would any large program with careful planning and proper organization. Acknowledging mistakes is key to advancement – and not just in science. Stephen Fry's Planet Word. Episode One: Babel Pt 1 of 4. Radio 4 - So You Want to Be A Scientist - Home. In 2012 Material World - Radio 4's weekly science show - helped four amateur scientists turn their ideas into real-life experiments.

Radio 4 - So You Want to Be A Scientist - Home

The Winner Val Watham has been chosen as the BBC's Amateur Scientist of the Year, for her study on the science of fashion. Find out more about Val's experiment Val's fashion experiment on Facebook The Finalists All our finalists presented their results at Cheltenham Science Festival on June 16 2012 in front of a panel of judges and a live audience.

Quant trading: How mathematicians rule the markets. 26 September 2011Last updated at 00:22 By Richard Anderson Business reporter, BBC News Mathematicians and their trading programs are increasingly taking the place of professional investors in financial centres across the world.

Quant trading: How mathematicians rule the markets

New study says birds learn how to build nests. 26 September 2011Last updated at 00:01 Footage of southern masked weaver birds formed the basis of the study A new study has found birds learn the art of nest-building, rather than it being just an instinctive skill.

New study says birds learn how to build nests

Researchers from Edinburgh, Glasgow and St Andrews Universities studied film of southern masked weavers recorded by scientists in Botswana. This colourful species was chosen because individual birds build many complex nests in a season. Dr Patrick Walsh of Edinburgh University said the study revealed "a clear role for experience". The research has been published in the Behavioural Processes journal. Women on pill remember things differently. It looked at how women on the contraceptive pill or experiencing natural hormonal cycles remembered a car accident involving a mother and son.

Women on pill remember things differently

Women using hormonal contraceptives for as little as one month remembered more clearly the main steps in the traumatic event - that there had been an accident, that the boy had been rushed to the hospital, that doctors worked to save his life and successfully reattached both his feet, for instance. Occ.ibo.org/ibis/documents/dp/drq/tok/d_0_tokxx_prt_1211_1.

Inventions Project TOK

Reindeer body clock switched off. Reindeer have to survive the light polar summer and dark polar winter Reindeer have no internal body clock, according to scientists.

Reindeer body clock switched off

Researchers found that the animals are missing a "circadian clock" that influences processes including the sleep-wake cycle and metabolism. This enables them to better cope with the extreme Arctic seasons of polar day, when the sun stays up all day, and polar night, when it does not rise. The team from the universities of Manchester and Tromso report their study in Current Biology journal.

Fish living in dark caves still feel the rhythm of life. 10 September 2011Last updated at 02:17 By Leila Battison Science reporter Millions of years of evolution in the dark have led to this Somalian cavefish losing its eyes, scales, and pigmentation.

Fish living in dark caves still feel the rhythm of life

A blind, cave-dwelling fish in Somalia knows what time it is, but its "day" is twice as long as ours. Most animals have an internal body clock, or circadian rhythm, that lasts around 24 hours and is modified by the light-dark cycle of a day. But an international team, whose research is published in the open access journal PloS Biology, shows that certain blind cave fish have a circadian rhythm that lasts almost two days. Rodin's Thinker cast vandalised in Argentina.

9 September 2011Last updated at 12:51 The sculpture is a popular tourist attraction in Buenos Aires A cast of Auguste Rodin's famous The Thinker sculpture has been vandalised in Buenos Aires.

Rodin's Thinker cast vandalised in Argentina

The bronze work, which is the third of 22 sculptures from the original mould, was spray-painted pink and given green hair and a shoulder tattoo. Last week government officials began cleaning the sculpture, blasting it with water to remove the paint. Supercomputer predicts revolution. 9 September 2011Last updated at 15:57 Sentiment mining showed a sharp change in tone around Egypt ahead of President Mubarak's ousting Feeding a supercomputer with news stories could help predict major world events, according to US research.

Supercomputer predicts revolution

A study, based on millions of articles, charted deteriorating national sentiment ahead of the recent revolutions in Libya and Egypt. While the analysis was carried out retrospectively, scientists say the same processes could be used to anticipate upcoming conflict. The system also picked up early clues about Osama Bin Laden's location. Kalev Leetaru, from the University of Illinois' Institute for Computing in the Humanities, Arts and Social Science, presented his findings in the journal First Monday. Theory of Knowledge. Internet Explorer users 'have below-average IQ' It found that Internet Explorer users scored lower than average, while Chrome, Firefox and Safari users were very slightly above average.

Camino, Opera and Internet Explorer with Chrome Frame were scored "exceptionally" high. "The study showed a substantial relationship between an individual's cognitive ability and their choice of web browser," AptiQuant concluded. Geoffrey West: The surprising math of cities and corporations. Scientists warn of 'Planet of the Apes' scenario. Ethical rules needed to curb 'Frankenstein-like experiments' on animals. Go Figure: What can 72 tell us about life? 20 July 2011Last updated at 22:43. The World at 7 Billion: Can We Stop Growing Now? by Robert Engelman. 18 Jul 2011: Opinion by robert engelman Demographers aren’t known for their sense of humor, but the ones who work for the United Nations recently announced that the world’s human population will hit 7 billion on Halloween this year.

Since censuses and other surveys can scarcely justify such a precise calculation, it’s tempting to imagine that the UN Population Division, the data shop that pinpointed the Day of 7 Billion, is hinting that we should all be afraid, be very afraid. We have reason to be. The 21st century is not yet a dozen years old, and there are already 1 billion more people than in October 1999 — with the outlook for future energy and food supplies looking bleaker than it has for decades. Westerners 'programmed for fatty foods and alcohol' 14 July 2011Last updated at 14:26 Obesity levels have risen sharply in many western countries since the 1970s Westerners could be genetically programmed to consume fatty foods and alcohol more than those from the east, researchers have claimed.

Scientists at the University of Aberdeen say a genetic switch - DNA which turns genes on or off within cells - regulates appetite and thirst. The study suggests it is also linked to depression. Dr Alasdair MacKenzie conceded it would not stop those moving to the west adapting to its lifestyle. A good book offers the ultimate escape. It's not ADHD, Sir, it's in my genes. . . Slime mould prefers sedatives, say researchers. 10 June 2011Last updated at 12:16 By Jason Palmer Science and technology reporter, BBC News. Proof and Science. RÓMPETE EL OJO. Fotos y noticias.

7,000,000,000. Everything Bad is Good for You: How Today's Popular Culture is Actually Making Us Smarter (9781594481949): Steven Johnson. EndGame HQ full length version. Book Review - Soul Dust - The Magic of Consciousness - By Nicholas Humphrey. Probability distribution. In applied probability, a probability distribution can be specified in a number of different ways, often chosen for mathematical convenience: A probability distribution can either be univariate or multivariate.

A univariate distribution gives the probabilities of a single random variable taking on various alternative values; a multivariate distribution (a joint probability distribution) gives the probabilities of a random vector—a set of two or more random variables—taking on various combinations of values. Important and commonly encountered univariate probability distributions include the binomial distribution, the hypergeometric distribution, and the normal distribution. The multivariate normal distribution is a commonly encountered multivariate distribution. Introduction[edit] The probability mass function (pmf) p(S) specifies the probability distribution for the sum S of counts from two dice. Terminology[edit] Finally, Basic terms[edit] Cumulative distribution function[edit]

Probability theory. As a mathematical foundation for statistics, probability theory is essential to many human activities that involve quantitative analysis of large sets of data. Methods of probability theory also apply to descriptions of complex systems given only partial knowledge of their state, as in statistical mechanics. A great discovery of twentieth century physics was the probabilistic nature of physical phenomena at atomic scales, described in quantum mechanics. Is graphene a miracle material? Consciousness.