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Womb zoom: What advances in fetal and newborn imaging have revealed : Nature Medicine. Moriah Thomason A keg-sized magnetic resonance imaging machine tucked into a corner of a neonatal-care unit in the maternity wing of the Royal Hallamshire Hospital in Sheffield, UK, is the smallest of its kind in the world.

Womb zoom: What advances in fetal and newborn imaging have revealed : Nature Medicine

Since engineers put the final touches on this prototype more than a year ago, doctors have thus far used it to captu… Read the full article Download references. How the brain recognizes faces. MIT researchers and their colleagues have developed a new computational model of the human brain’s face-recognition mechanism that seems to capture aspects of human neurology that previous models have missed.

How the brain recognizes faces

The researchers designed a machine-learning system that implemented their model, and they trained it to recognize particular faces by feeding it a battery of sample images. They found that the trained system included an intermediate processing step that represented a face’s degree of rotation — say, 45 degrees from center — but not the direction — left or right. This property wasn’t built into the system; it emerged spontaneously from the training process. But it duplicates an experimentally observed feature of the primate face-processing mechanism. The researchers consider this an indication that their system and the brain are doing something similar. Brain Activity Can Be Used to Predict Reading Success up to 2 Years in Advance - Neuroscience News. Summary: Researchers study event related potentials to help predict children’s reading levels in years to come.

Brain Activity Can Be Used to Predict Reading Success up to 2 Years in Advance - Neuroscience News

Source: Binghampton University. By measuring brainwaves, it is possible to predict what a child’s reading level will be years in advance, according to research from Binghamton University, State University of New York. Binghamton University researchers Sarah Laszlo and Mallory Stites measured the brain activity of children and then compared it to their report cards, their vocabulary and other signs of reading success two years later, as part of the National Science Foundation-funded Reading Brain Project.

Epilepsy

Unexpected role of interferon-γ in regulating neuronal connectivity and social behaviour : Nature : Nature Research. Affiliations Center for Brain Immunology and Glia, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA Anthony J.

Unexpected role of interferon-γ in regulating neuronal connectivity and social behaviour : Nature : Nature Research

Filiano, Rachel L. Marsh, Wendy Baker, Igor Smirnov, Christopher C. Overall, Sachin P. Gadani, Kevin S. Concussion. Music in the Brain: Imaging Genetic Study Links Dopamine Genes to Music – Neuroscience News. Summary: The effect music has on people may be genetically determined by dopamine functionality, a new study reports.

Music in the Brain: Imaging Genetic Study Links Dopamine Genes to Music – Neuroscience News

Source: Aarhus University. Sounds, such as music and noise, are capable of reliably affecting individuals’ moods and emotions, possibly by regulating brain dopamine, a neurotransmitter strongly involved in emotional behavior and mood regulation. However, the relationship of sound environments with mood and emotions is highly variable across individuals. Music in the Brain: Imaging Genetic Study Links Dopamine Genes to Music – Neuroscience News. A dendritic disinhibitory circuit mechanism for pathway-specific gating : Nature Communications. All models A summary of all types of models used and where they are used can be found in Supplementary Table 2.

A dendritic disinhibitory circuit mechanism for pathway-specific gating : Nature Communications

Spiking pyramidal neuron models For the fully reconstructed multi-compartmental pyramidal neuron model (Supplementary Fig. 1a–d), we adapted a previously developed model based on a layer 2/3 pyramidal neuron in the rat somatosensory cortex reported by Branco et al.52. We used the passive membrane parameter set; results are essentially the same with the active membrane parameter set. Brain connections are more sophisticated than thought. DURHAM, N.C. -- In 1959, a scientist named Edward Gray showed that the miniscule gaps between neurons where chemical messages are sent, called synapses, come in two main varieties, which researchers later dubbed "excitatory" and "inhibitory.

Brain connections are more sophisticated than thought

" Inhibitory synapses act as the brakes in the brain, preventing it from becoming overexcited. Researchers thought they were less sophisticated than their excitatory counterparts because relatively few proteins were known to exist at these structures. But a new study by Duke University scientists, published Sept. 9 in Science, overturns that assumption, uncovering 140 proteins that have never been mapped to inhibitory synapses.

EEG recordings prove learning foreign languages can sharpen our minds. Scientists from the Higher School of Economics (HSE) together with colleagues from the University of Helsinki have discovered that learning foreign languages enhances the our brain's elasticity and its ability to code information.

EEG recordings prove learning foreign languages can sharpen our minds

The more foreign languages we learn, the more effectively our brain reacts and processes the data accumulated in the course of learning. An article of Yury Shtyrov, Leading Research Fellow of the HSE Centre for Cognition & Decision Making, Lilli Kimppa and Teija Kujala (University of Helsinki) summarizing the new findings has been recently published in Scientific Reports. According to the study, the neurophysiological mechanics of language and speech acquisition are underexplored when compared to the brain's other functions.

The reason for such scarce attention is the inability to study verbal function on test animals. Researchers carried out experiments where the brain's electrical activity was measured with EEG (electroencephalography). Scientists have identified a part of the brain responsible for the placebo effect. Two New Studies Uncover Key Players Responsible for Learning and Memory Formation – Neuroscience News. Summary: Researchers have identified a novel signaling system that controls neuroplasticity.

Two New Studies Uncover Key Players Responsible for Learning and Memory Formation – Neuroscience News

Source: Max Planck Institute. Researchers from Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Duke University, and collaborators have identified a novel signaling system controlling neuronal plasticity. Study identifies neural circuits involved in making risky decisions. New research sheds light on what’s going on inside our heads as we decide whether to take a risk or play it safe.

Study identifies neural circuits involved in making risky decisions

Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis located a region of the brain involved in decisions made under conditions of uncertainty, and identified some of the cells involved in the decision-making process. The work, published July 27 in The Journal of Neuroscience, could lead to treatments for psychological and psychiatric disorders that involve misjudging risk, such as problem gambling and anxiety disorders.

“We know from human imaging studies that certain parts of the brain are more or less active in risk-seeking people, but the neural circuits involved are largely unknown,” said Ilya Monosov, PhD, an assistant professor of neuroscience and senior author on the study. How Does Our Brain Decide Whether A Situation is Pleasant or Not? – Neuroscience News. Summary: Researchers have identified a mechanism that allows us to judge whether a difficult social situation is emotional negative or positive. Source: University of Haifa. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig and the University of Haifa, Israel, have identified neural mechanisms that help us understand whether a difficult and complex social situation is emotionally positive or negative.

How Does Our Brain Decide Whether A Situation is Pleasant or Not? – Neuroscience News. Proof Why Being in Nature Makes You Feel Good. Scientists recently studied the physical effects that nature has on your brain. You know that being outside makes you feel good. You know that walking through the woods does something to you. You know that swimming in the ocean puts you in a better mood. But do you know exactly why? Well, according to a study from last year, being in nature has real, measurable effects your brain. Recent studies have found links between city living and anxiety and depression, while those living outside urban centers have a much lower risk. New clue to how lithium works in the brain. Since the 1970s, U.S. doctors have prescribed lithium to treat patients with bipolar disorder.

While the drug has a good success rate, scientists are still unsure exactly how it achieves its beneficial effects. MIT biologists have now discovered a possible explanation for how lithium works. In a study of worms, the researchers identified a key protein that is inhibited by lithium, making the worms less active. While these behavioral effects in worms can’t be translated directly to humans, the results suggest a possible mechanism for lithium’s effects on the brain, which the researchers believe is worth exploring further. Researchers pinpoint neurons that tell the brain when to stop drinking - Vital Record. The group’s prior research showed that alcohol consumption alters the physical structure and function of neurons, called medium spiny neurons, in the dorsomedial striatum. Essentially, they found that activation of one type of neuron, called D1, determines whether one drink leads to two.

Now, they’ve discovered the ones that tell us to stop. Report: A host of common chemicals endanger child brain development. Seasonal Allergies Could Change Your Brain – Neuroscience News. Summary: A new study reports mice who were exposed to allergens produced new hippocampal neurons during allergic reactions. Invisible Wounds of War Now Able to be Seen – Neuroscience News. Scientists unpack how Toxoplasma infection is linked to neurodegenerative disease: New research focused on glutamate, the most important neurotransmitter in the brain. How Did Consciousness Evolve? Ever since Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1859, evolution has been the grand unifying theory of biology. Yet one of our most important biological traits, consciousness, is rarely studied in the context of evolution. Theories of consciousness come from religion, from philosophy, from cognitive science, but not so much from evolutionary biology. Jan 19, 2016: Academy Honors Six for Major Contributions in Neuroscience, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences.

Jan. 19, 2016 WASHINGTON — The National Academy of Sciences will honor four individuals with awards in recognition of their extraordinary scientific achievements in neuroscience and psychological and cognitive sciences. John R. Anderson, Richard King Mellon Professor of Psychology and Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University, and Carol S. GetSharedSiteSession?rc=4&redirect= Brain Connections May Cause Blurring Sense Of Self With LSD. New Understanding and Hope for Children on the Autism Spectrum: Based in Brain and Movement Sciences. Part 1: Three Things You Can Do to Help Your Child with ASD. Immune Cells Key to Maintaining Blood-Brain Barrier – Neuroscience News. New research shows that the cells responsible for protecting the brain from infection and inflammation are also responsible for repairing the system of defenses that separates the brain from the rest of the body.

These findings have significant clinical implications because certain cardiovascular drugs could possibly impede the brain’s ability to repair itself after a stroke or other injury.