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Self-Reports

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Self-report study. A self-report study is a type of survey, questionnaire, or poll in which respondents read the question and select a response by themselves without researcher interference. A self-report is any method which involves asking a participant about their feelings, attitudes, beliefs and so on. Examples of self-reports are questionnaires and interviews; self-reports are often used as a way of gaining participants' responses in observational studies and experiments. Self-report studies have validity problems. Patients may exaggerate symptoms in order to make their situation seem worse, or they may under-report the severity or frequency of symptoms in order to minimize their problems.

Questionnaires and interviews[edit] Questionnaires are a type of self-report method which consist of a set of questions usually in a highly structured written form. Unstructured interviews can be very time consuming and difficult to carry out whereas structured interviews can restrict the respondents’ replies. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) is a psychological inventory based on a 4-point Likert scale and consists of 40 questions on a self-report basis. The STAI measures two types of anxiety - state anxiety, or anxiety about an event, and trait anxiety, or anxiety level as a personal characteristic. Higher scores are positively correlated with higher levels of anxiety.

Its most current revision is Form Y and it is offered in 12 languages. [1] It was developed by psychologists Charles Spielberger, R.L. Gorsuch, and R.E. Spielberger also created other questionnaires, like the STAI, that assessed other emotions. The STAI can be utilized across a range of socio-economic statuses and requires a sixth grade reading level. History[edit] History of the STAI[edit] Spielberger was not alone in creating the STAI, R.L. History of Spielberger[edit] Charles Spielberger was born on March 28, 1927 in the town of Atlanta, Georgia. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory[edit] Anxiety[edit] State Anxiety[edit] Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Personality dimensions[edit] Name[edit] The original version of the measurement, published in 1978, was the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory (NEO-I). This version only measured three of the Big Five personality traits. It was later revised in 1985 to include all five traits and renamed the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI).

In this version, "NEO" was now considered part of the name of the test and was no longer an acronym. This naming convention continued with the third version, the NEO PI-R, published in 1990. The NEO-PI-3, an update to the NEO Inventory, was published in 2005. A mnemonic device for the five primary factors is the acronym "OCEAN," or alternatively "CANOE".

History[edit] In the 1970s, Costa and McCrae were researching how personality changed with age. Throughout the mid- to late-1990s, Costa and McCrae began to realize that some items on the NEO-PI-R were out-dated or too difficult to understand for participants. Forms and administration[edit] See also[edit] Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Model of personality types A chart with descriptions of each Myers–Briggs personality type and the four dichotomies central to the theory The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire with the purpose of indicating differing psychological preferences in how people perceive the world around them and make decisions.[1][2][3] The MBTI was constructed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers.[4] It is based on the conceptual theory proposed by Carl Jung,[5] who had speculated that humans experience the world using four principal psychological functions – sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking – and that one of these four functions is dominant for a person most of the time.[6] History[edit] Katharine Cook Briggs began her research into personality in 1917.

Upon meeting her future son-in-law, she observed marked differences between his personality and that of other family members. Origins of the theory[edit] Concepts[edit] Type[edit] Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely used and researched standardized psychometric test of adult personality and psychopathology.[1] Psychologists and other mental health professionals use various versions of the MMPI to develop treatment plans; assist with differential diagnosis; help answer legal questions (forensic psychology); screen job candidates during the personnel selection process; or as part of a therapeutic assessment procedure.[2] The original MMPI, first published by the University of Minnesota Press in 1943, was replaced by an updated version, the MMPI-2, in 1989.

A version for adolescents, the MMPI-A, was published in 1992. An alternative version of the test, the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), published in 2008, retains some aspects of the traditional MMPI assessment strategy, but adopts a different theoretical approach to personality test development. History[edit] The original authors of the MMPI were Starke R. MMPI[edit] Major Depression Inventory. The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is a self-report mood questionnaire developed by the World Health Organisation. The instrument was constructed by a team led by Professor Per Bech, a psychiatrist based at Frederiksborg General Hospital in Denmark.[1] The MDI differs from many other self-report inventories, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), because it is able to generate an ICD-10 or DSM-IV diagnosis of clinical depression in addition to an estimate of symptom severity.[2][3] Unlike many other similar instruments, the MDI is available free of charge and can be downloaded from the internet with a full manual and scoring instructions.

This makes it an attractive option in epidemiological population surveys. It has also been translated into seven languages. Scoring[edit] To measure treatment outcome the sum of the ten items is used. When using the scale to diagnose depression according to ICD-10, there are the following possibilities: See also[edit] External links[edit] Geriatric Depression Scale. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a 30-item self-report assessment used to identify depression in the elderly. The scale was first developed in 1982 by J.A. Yesavage and others.[1] Description[edit] The GDS questions are answered "yes" or "no", instead of a five-category response set.

This simplicity enables the scale to be used with ill or moderately cognitively impaired individuals. Scale questions and scoring[edit] Are you basically satisfied with your life? Original scoring for the scale: one point for each of these answers. See also[edit] Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry External links[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, et al. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. In psychology, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) is a questionnaire to assess the personality traits of a person. It was devised by the psychologists Hans Jürgen Eysenck and his wife Sybil B.

G. Eysenck.[1] Hans Eysenck's theory is based primarily on physiology and genetics. Temperament is that aspect of our personalities that is genetically based, inborn, there from birth or even before. Dimensions[edit] Eysenck initially conceptualized personality as two, biologically-based independent dimensions of temperament measured on a continuum: Extraversion/Introversion: Extraversion is characterized by being outgoing, talkative, high on positive affect (feeling good), and in need of external stimulation. Neuroticism/Stability: Neuroticism or emotionality is characterized by high levels of negative affect such as depression and anxiety. The two dimensions or axes, extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability, define four quadrants. Versions[edit] See also[edit] California Psychological Inventory. The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) is a self-report inventory created by Harrison Gough and currently published by Consulting Psychologists Press.

The test was first published in 1956, and the most recent revision was published in 1987. It was created in a similar manner to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)—with which it shares 194 items. But unlike the MMPI, which focuses on maladjustment or clinical diagnosis, the CPI was created to assess the everyday "folk-concepts" that ordinary people use to describe the behavior of the people around them.[1] Test design[edit] The CPI is made up of 434 true-false questions, of which 194 were taken from the original version of the MMPI.[1] The test is scored on 18 scales, three of which are validity scales.

Eleven of the non-validity scales were selected by comparing responses from various groups of people. The test is typically used with people aged 13 years and older. Subtests[edit] Scoring[edit] Validity[edit] Beck Hopelessness Scale. The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) is a 20-item self-report inventory developed by Dr. Aaron T. Beck that was designed to measure three major aspects of hopelessness: feelings about the future, loss of motivation, and expectations.[1] The test is designed for adults, age 17-80. It measures the extent of the respondent's negative attitudes, or pessimism, about the future. It may be used as an indicator of suicidal risk in depressed people who have made suicide attempts.

The test is multiple choice. It is not designed for use as a measure of the hopelessness construct but has been used as such. Sufficient data about the use of the test with those younger than 17 has not been collected. Validity[edit] Dowd [4] and Owen[5] both positively reviewed the effectiveness of the instrument, with Dowd concluding that the BHS was "a well-constructed and validated instrument, with adequate reliability. " [4] DMCA Notice[edit] Questionnaire[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Beck Depression Inventory. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, BDI-1A, BDI-II), created by Dr. Aaron T. Beck, is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory, one of the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity of depression. Its development marked a shift among health care professionals, who had until then viewed depression from a psychodynamic perspective, instead of it being rooted in the patient's own thoughts.

In its current version the questionnaire is designed for individuals aged 13 and over, and is composed of items relating to symptoms of depression such as hopelessness and irritability, cognitions such as guilt or feelings of being punished, as well as physical symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, and lack of interest in sex.[1] There are three versions of the BDI—the original BDI, first published in 1961 and later revised in 1978 as the BDI-1A, and the BDI-II, published in 1996. Development and history[edit] BDI[edit] Higher total scores indicate more severe depressive symptoms.

Beck Anxiety Inventory. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), created by Dr. Aaron T. Beck and other colleagues, is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory that is used for measuring the severity of an individual's anxiety. BAI[edit] The BAI consists of twenty-one questions about how the subject has been feeling in the last week, expressed as common symptoms of anxiety (such as numbness and tingling, sweating not due to heat, and fear of the worst happening). It is designed for an age range of 17–80 years old. Each question has the same set of four possible answer choices, which are arranged in columns and are answered by marking the appropriate one with a cross.

These are: NOT AT ALL (0 points)MILDLY: It did not bother me much. (1 point)MODERATELY: It was very unpleasant, but I could stand it. (2 points)SEVERELY: I could barely stand it. (3 points) The BAI has a maximum score of 63. 0-7: minimal level of anxiety8-15: mild anxiety16-25: moderate anxiety26-63: severe anxiety Clinical use[edit] See also[edit] 16PF Questionnaire. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (or 16PF),[1] is a multiple-choice personality questionnaire which was developed over several decades of research by Raymond B.

Cattell, Maurice Tatsuoka and Herbert Eber. Beginning in the 1940s, Cattell used the new techniques of factor analysis (based on the correlation coefficient) in an attempt to try to discover and measure the source traits of human personality (Cattell, 1946)(Nevid, 2009).[2][3] The questionnaire measures the 16 primary traits, and the Big Five secondary traits,[4][5] which have become popularized by other authors in recent years. From early in his research, Cattell found that the structure of personality was multi-level and hierarchical, with a structure of interdependent primary and secondary level traits (Cattell, 1946, 1957).[2][6] The sixteen primary factors were a result of factor-analyzing hundreds of measures of everyday behaviors to find the fundamental traits behind them.

Outline of Test[edit]