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Self-Reports

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Self-report study. A self-report study is a type of survey, questionnaire, or poll in which respondents read the question and select a response by themselves without researcher interference.

Self-report study

A self-report is any method which involves asking a participant about their feelings, attitudes, beliefs and so on. Examples of self-reports are questionnaires and interviews; self-reports are often used as a way of gaining participants' responses in observational studies and experiments. Self-report studies have validity problems. Patients may exaggerate symptoms in order to make their situation seem worse, or they may under-report the severity or frequency of symptoms in order to minimize their problems. Patients might also simply be mistaken or misremember the material covered by the survey. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) is a psychological inventory based on a 4-point Likert scale and consists of 40 questions on a self-report basis.

State-Trait Anxiety Inventory

The STAI measures two types of anxiety - state anxiety, or anxiety about an event, and trait anxiety, or anxiety level as a personal characteristic. Higher scores are positively correlated with higher levels of anxiety. Its most current revision is Form Y and it is offered in 12 languages. [1] It was developed by psychologists Charles Spielberger, R.L. Gorsuch, and R.E. Spielberger also created other questionnaires, like the STAI, that assessed other emotions. The STAI can be utilized across a range of socio-economic statuses and requires a sixth grade reading level. Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Personality dimensions[edit] Name[edit] The original version of the measurement, published in 1978, was the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory (NEO-I).

Revised NEO Personality Inventory

This version only measured three of the Big Five personality traits. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. A chart with descriptions of each Myers–Briggs personality type and the four dichotomies central to the theory The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire designed to indicate psychological preferences in how people perceive the world around them and make decisions.[1][2][3] The MBTI was constructed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

History[edit] Katharine Cook Briggs began her research into personality in 1917. Upon meeting her future son-in-law, she observed marked differences between his personality and that of other family members. After the English translation of Jung's book Psychological Types was published in 1923 (first published in German in 1921), she recognized that Jung's theory was similar to, but went far beyond, her own.[1]:22 Briggs's four types were later identified as corresponding to the IXXXs, EXXPs, EXTJs and EXFJs. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Major Depression Inventory. The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is a self-report mood questionnaire developed by the World Health Organisation.

Major Depression Inventory

The instrument was constructed by a team led by Professor Per Bech, a psychiatrist based at Frederiksborg General Hospital in Denmark.[1] The MDI differs from many other self-report inventories, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), because it is able to generate an ICD-10 or DSM-IV diagnosis of clinical depression in addition to an estimate of symptom severity.[2][3] Unlike many other similar instruments, the MDI is available free of charge and can be downloaded from the internet with a full manual and scoring instructions. This makes it an attractive option in epidemiological population surveys. It has also been translated into seven languages. Geriatric Depression Scale. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a 30-item self-report assessment used to identify depression in the elderly.

Geriatric Depression Scale

The scale was first developed in 1982 by J.A. Yesavage and others.[1] Description[edit] The GDS questions are answered "yes" or "no", instead of a five-category response set. This simplicity enables the scale to be used with ill or moderately cognitively impaired individuals. Scale questions and scoring[edit] Are you basically satisfied with your life? Original scoring for the scale: one point for each of these answers.

Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. In psychology, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) is a questionnaire to assess the personality traits of a person.

Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

It was devised by the psychologists Hans Jürgen Eysenck and his wife Sybil B. G. California Psychological Inventory. Beck Hopelessness Scale. The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) is a 20-item self-report inventory developed by Dr.

Beck Hopelessness Scale

Aaron T. Beck that was designed to measure three major aspects of hopelessness: feelings about the future, loss of motivation, and expectations.[1] The test is designed for adults, age 17-80. It measures the extent of the respondent's negative attitudes, or pessimism, about the future. It may be used as an indicator of suicidal risk in depressed people who have made suicide attempts.

The test is multiple choice. Validity[edit] The BHS moderately correlates with the Beck Depression Inventory, although research shows that the BDI is better suited for predicting suicidal ideation behavior.[3] The internal reliability coefficients are reasonably high (Pearson r= .82 to .93 in seven norm groups), but the BHS test-retest reliability coefficients are modest (.69 after one week and .66 after six weeks).[1]

Beck Depression Inventory. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, BDI-1A, BDI-II), created by Dr.

Beck Depression Inventory

Aaron T. Beck, is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory, one of the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity of depression. Its development marked a shift among health care professionals, who had until then viewed depression from a psychodynamic perspective, instead of it being rooted in the patient's own thoughts. In its current version the questionnaire is designed for individuals aged 13 and over, and is composed of items relating to symptoms of depression such as hopelessness and irritability, cognitions such as guilt or feelings of being punished, as well as physical symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, and lack of interest in sex.[1]

Beck Anxiety Inventory. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), created by Dr.

Beck Anxiety Inventory

Aaron T. Beck and other colleagues, is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory that is used for measuring the severity of an individual's anxiety. BAI[edit] The BAI consists of twenty-one questions about how the subject has been feeling in the last week, expressed as common symptoms of anxiety (such as numbness and tingling, sweating not due to heat, and fear of the worst happening). It is designed for an age range of 17–80 years old. NOT AT ALL (0 points)MILDLY: It did not bother me much. (1 point)MODERATELY: It was very unpleasant, but I could stand it. (2 points)SEVERELY: I could barely stand it. (3 points)

16PF Questionnaire. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (or 16PF),[1] is a multiple-choice personality questionnaire which was developed over several decades of research by Raymond B. Cattell, Maurice Tatsuoka and Herbert Eber. Beginning in the 1940s, Cattell used the new techniques of factor analysis (based on the correlation coefficient) in an attempt to try to discover and measure the source traits of human personality (Cattell, 1946)(Nevid, 2009).[2][3] The questionnaire measures the 16 primary traits, and the Big Five secondary traits,[4][5] which have become popularized by other authors in recent years.