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Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist , historian and teacher during the Victorian era . [ 1 ] He called economics " the dismal science ", wrote articles for the Edinburgh Encyclopedia , and became a controversial social commentator. [ 1 ] Coming from a strict Calvinist family, Carlyle was expected to become a preacher by his parents, but while at the University of Edinburgh he lost his Christian faith. Calvinist values, however, remained with him throughout his life. His combination of a religious temperament with loss of faith in traditional Christianity, made Carlyle's work appealing to many Victorians who were grappling with scientific and political changes that threatened the traditional social order. He brought a trenchant style to his social and political criticism and a complex literary style to works such as The French Revolution: A History (1837).
Charles John Huffam Dickens ( pron.: / ˈ tʃ ɑr l z ˈ d ɪ k ɪ n z / ; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's most memorable fictional characters and is generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period . [ 1 ] During his life, his works enjoyed unprecedented fame, and by the twentieth century his literary genius was broadly acknowledged by critics and scholars. His novels and short stories continue to be widely popular. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Born in Portsmouth, England, Dickens left school to work in a factory after his father was thrown into debtors' prison.
The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 , sometimes abbreviated to PLAA , [ 1 ] was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed by the Whig government of Earl Grey that reformed the country's poverty relief system (with the exception of Scotland, which reformed their poor law in 1845). It was an Amendment Act that completely replaced earlier legislation based on the Poor Law of 1601. With reference to this earlier Act the 1834 Act is also known as the New Poor Law . [ 2 ]
Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, and poet , who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States. Emerson gradually moved away from the religious and social beliefs of his contemporaries, formulating and expressing the philosophy of Transcendentalism in his 1836 essay, Nature .
Transcendentalism was a philosophical movement that was developed in the 1830s and 1840s in the Eastern region of the United States as a protest to the general state of culture and society, and in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard University and the doctrine of the Unitarian church taught at Harvard Divinity School . Among the transcendentalists' core beliefs was the inherent goodness of both people and nature. Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual.
John Stuart Mill , FRSE (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher , political economist and civil servant. He was an influential contributor to social theory , political theory , and political economy . He has been called "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century". [ 3 ] Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control. [ 4 ] He was a proponent of utilitarianism , an ethical theory developed by Jeremy Bentham .
Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes utility, specifically defined as maximizing happiness and reducing suffering. Classic utilitarianism, as advocated by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill , is hedonistic . [ 1 ] It is now generally taken to be a form of consequentialism , although when Anscombe first introduced that term it was to distinguish between "old-fashioned Utilitarianism" and consequentialism. [ 2 ] According to utilitarianism the moral worth of an action is determined only by its resulting outcome, although there is debate over how much consideration should be given to actual consequences, foreseen consequences and intended consequences. Two influential contributors to this theory are Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill.
Past and Present is a book by Thomas Carlyle . It was published in April 1843 in England and the following month in the United States. It combines medieval history with criticism of 19th-century British society. Carlyle wrote it in seven weeks as a respite from the harassing labor of writing Cromwell . He was inspired by the recently published Chronicles of the Abbey of Saint Edmund's Bury , which had been written by Jocelin of Brakelond at the close of the 12th century. This account of a medieval monastery had taken Carlyle's fancy, and he drew upon it in order to contrast the monks' reverence for work and heroism with the sham leadership of his own day.
John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era , also an art patron, draughtsman , watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects ranging from geology to architecture, myth to ornithology, literature to education, and botany to political economy. His writing styles and literary forms were equally varied.
" Unto This Last " is an essay on economy by John Ruskin , first published in December 1860 in the monthly journal Cornhill Magazine in four articles. Ruskin says himself that these articles were "very violently criticized", forcing the publisher to stop the publication after four months. Subscribers sent protest letters. But Ruskin countered the attack and published the four articles in a book in May 1862.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi pronunciation (pronounced: [ˈmoːɦənd̪aːs ˈkərəmtʃənd̪ ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ; 2 October 1869 [ 1 ] – 30 January 1948), commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi , was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India . Employing non-violent civil disobedience , Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and freedom across the world. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] The son of a senior government official, Gandhi was born and raised in a Hindu community in coastal Gujarat , and trained in law in London.
On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History is a book by Thomas Carlyle , published with James Fraser, London, in 1841. It is a collection of six lectures held in May 1840. 1. (5 May) The Hero as Divinity.
Napoleon, a typical "great man" said to have determined an era The Great Man theory is a 19th-century idea according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of "great men", or heroes : highly influential individuals who, due to either their personal charisma , intelligence , wisdom , or political skill utilized their power in a way that had a decisive historical impact. The theory was popularized in the 1840s by Scottish writer Thomas Carlyle , and in 1860 Herbert Spencer formulated a counter-argument that has remained influential throughout the 20th century to the present; Spencer said that such great men are the products of their societies, and that their actions would be impossible without the social conditions built before their lifetimes. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ]
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche ( / ˈ n iː tʃ ə / [ 42 ] or / ˈ n i tʃ i / ; [ 43 ] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːt͡sʃə] ; October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) was a German philosopher , poet , composer , cultural critic , and classical philologist . He wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy, and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor , irony , and aphorism . Nietzsche's key ideas include the " death of God ," the Übermensch , the eternal recurrence , the Apollonian and Dionysian dichotomy, perspectivism , and the will to power . Central to his philosophy is the idea of "life-affirmation", which involves questioning of all doctrines that drain life's expansive energies, however socially prevalent those views might be. [ 44 ] His influence remains substantial within philosophy, notably in existentialism , post-modernism , and post-structuralism , as well as outside it.
Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future ( German : Jenseits von Gut und Böse: Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft ) is a book by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche , first published in 1886.