Science

Facebook Twitter

Psychology

Biology. Chemistry. Game Theory. Linguística. Mathematics. Physics. TED Science. TED Talks. Fator sorte do câncer. Em um de seus contos, Jorge Luis Borges inventou a loteria da Babilônia, controlada por uma organização cada vez mais secreta e poderosa que acaba dominando as vidas de todos os habitantes.

Fator sorte do câncer

O prêmio em alguns casos era a morte e a loteria, uma variante do destino. “A Babilônia não é outra coisa senão um jogo de azar infinito”, escreveu o argentino. No mundo real, o câncer também é um jogo de azar infinito. Grande parte dos tumores conhecidos não ocorrem por fatores externos e evitáveis, como fumar, nem por razões hereditárias dos genes, mas também por puro azar.

Agora, um estudo quantificou quanto pesa esse fator sorte no câncer. A má sorte se deve “a mutações aleatórias que ocorrem durante a divisão normal das células-mãe quando essas acontecem em genes que agem no desenvolvimento do câncer”, explica o estatístico e matemático da Universidade Johns Hopkins (EUA) Cristian Tomasetti, coautor do trabalho. O bioestatístico Tomasetti ressalta duas conclusões importantes. 'Tempestade perfeita' permitiu surgimento de Aids, diz estudo - BBC Brasil. Photo Album. The Cognitive Cost Of Expertise. In the 1940s, the Dutch psychologist Adrian de Groot performed a landmark study of chess experts.

The Cognitive Cost Of Expertise

Although de Groot was an avid chess amateur – he belonged to several clubs - he grew increasingly frustrated by his inability to compete with more talented players. De Groot wanted to understand his defeats, to identify the mental skills that he was missing. His initial hypothesis was that the chess expert were blessed with a photographic memory, allowing them to remember obscure moves and exploit the minor mistakes of their opponents. De Groot’s first experiment seemed to confirm this theory: He placed twenty different pieces on a chess board, imitating the layout of a possible game. Then, de Groot asked a variety of chess players, from inexperienced amateurs to chess grandmasters, to quickly glance at the board and try to memorize the location of each piece.

But then de Groot performed a second experiment that changed everything. National Geographic - Inspiring People to Care About the Planet Since 1888. The Brain—Information about the Brain. 1 Introduction “I think, therefore I am.”

The Brain—Information about the Brain

—René Descartes, 17th-century philosopher Few of us question the crucial importance of the brain. It is vital to our existence. Our brains enable us to think, as René Descartes so skillfully pointed out nearly 400 years ago. The brain makes up only 2 percent of our body weight, but it consumes 20 percent of the oxygen we breathe and 20 percent of the energy we consume.

Scientists have worked for many years to unravel the complex workings of the brain. Despite these and other significant advances in the field of brain research, most of the processes responsible for the integrated functioning of billions of brain cells remain a mystery. An essential aspect of any scientific research is communicating results to the public in a way that is easily understood. To correctly interpret the information transmitted through these venues, we need a better understanding of basic concepts related to the brain. 2 Myths and Realities about the Brain. Red Ice Creations - A Lighthouse in the Darkness.