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List of constructed languages

List of constructed languages
This list of notable constructed languages is in alphabetical order, and divided into auxiliary, engineered, and artistic (including fictional) languages, and their respective subgenres. Auxiliary languages[edit] International auxiliary languages are languages constructed to provide communication among all human beings, or a significant portion, without necessarily replacing native languages. Controlled languages[edit] Controlled languages are natural languages that have in some way been altered to make them simpler, easier to use, or more acceptable in certain circumstances, such as when a person does not speak the original language well. Visual languages[edit] Visual languages use symbols or movements in place of the spoken word. Engineered languages[edit] Human-usable[edit] Knowledge representation[edit] Artistic/fictional languages[edit] Languages used in fiction[edit] J. (see also Languages constructed by J. Other literature[edit] Comic books[edit] Film and television[edit] Music[edit] Furbish Related:  Linguistiquewords, linguistics, semantics and semioticsA Radical View of Chinese Characters

Capsule outil: La voix et l'appareil de phonation Capsule outil: La voix et l'appareil de phonation Parler sa langue maternelle se fait tellement inconsciemment et sans effort que l'on ne se rend pas compte, outre les processus cognitifs hypercomplexes qui sous-tendent la parole, comment le simple fait d'articuler correctement des mots découle d'une mécanique d'une grande précision. L'appareil vocal humain peut être comparé à la fois à un instrument de musique à vent et à corde. D'un blanc nacré, les cordes vocales sont attachées horizontalement entre le cartilage thyroïde (la " pomme d'Adam " chez l'homme) situé à l'avant et les cartilages aryténoïdes situés à l'arrière. Sous la pression de l'air expiré, les cordes vocales s'écartent, puis se referment aussitôt, entraînant à nouveau une hausse de la pression sous la glotte. Mais ces sons ne constituent pas encore des mots, ils doivent être sculptés par le reste de l'appareil vocal pour en devenir. L'appareil phonatoire humain essentiel à la parole ?

The Gospel According to Mary Magdalene Chapter 4 (Pages 1 to 6 of the manuscript, containing chapters 1 - 3, are lost. The extant text starts on page 7...) . . . Will matter then be destroyed or not? 22) The Savior said, All nature, all formations, all creatures exist in and with one another, and they will be resolved again into their own roots. 23) For the nature of matter is resolved into the roots of its own nature alone. 24) He who has ears to hear, let him hear. 25) Peter said to him, Since you have explained everything to us, tell us this also: What is the sin of the world? Chapter 5 1) But they were grieved. Chapter 8: . . . it. 10) And desire said, I did not see you descending, but now I see you ascending. Chapter 9 1) When Mary had said this, she fell silent, since it was to this point that the Savior had spoken with her. 2) But Andrew answered and said to the brethren, Say what you wish to say about what she has said.

The world's scripts and alphabets - World Standards Last update: 6 July 2015 Speech, the universal way by which humans communicate, fades instantly: before a word is fully pronounced it has already vanished forever. Writing, the first technology to make the spoken word permanent, changed the human condition. It was a revolution in communication when a script allowed individuals to share information without meeting face to face. Over the past millennia hundreds of different alphabets and scripts have been used all over the world. A quick calculation shows that about 2.6 billion people (36% of the world population) use the Latin alphabet, about 1.3 billion people (18%) use the Chinese script, about 1 billion people (14%) use the Devanagari script (India), about 1 billion people (14%) use the Arabic alphabet, about 0.3 billion people (4%) use the Cyrillic alphabet and about 0.25 billion people (3.5%) use the Dravidian script (South India).

Buffalo Buffalo The sentence's meaning becomes clearer when it's understood that it uses three meanings of the word buffalo: the city of Buffalo, New York, the somewhat uncommon verb "to buffalo" (meaning "to bully or intimidate"), as well as the animal buffalo. When the punctuation and grammar are expanded, the sentence could read as follows: "Buffalo buffalo that Buffalo buffalo buffalo, buffalo Buffalo buffalo." The meaning becomes even clearer when synonyms are used: "Buffalo bison that other Buffalo bison bully, themselves bully Buffalo bison." Sentence construction Bison engaged in a contest of dominance. A comic explaining the concept The sentence is unpunctuated and uses three different readings of the word "buffalo". Marking each "buffalo" with its use as shown above gives: Buffaloa buffalon Buffaloa buffalon buffalov buffalov Buffaloa buffalon. "New York bison New York bison bully, bully New York bison", or:"New York bison whom other New York bison bully, themselves bully New York bison". Usage

Langage et évolution : nouvelles hypothèses En croisant de nombreuses données issues de différentes disciplines, il est désormais possible d'élaborer des scénarios sur l'émergence du langage, les raisons de son apparition, et même d'imaginer quelle langue ont parlée les premiers hommes. La question de l'origine du langage, fort prisée des philosophes des Lumières, devint centrale pour nombre de savants du xixe siècle : les théories se mirent à pulluler et chacun y allait de son hypothèse plus ou moins fantaisiste... Le philologue Friedrich Max Müller s'était d'ailleurs plu à classer toutes ces théories en leur donnant des noms péjoratifs (1) : ainsi la théorie « bow-bow », selon laquelle les onomatopées étaient à l'origine du langage ; ou encore la théorie « pooh-pooh », qui supposait que le langage dérivait des cris d'alerte chez les animaux. Il a fallu attendre la fin du xxe siècle pour que ce sujet sorte du ghetto dans lequel elle avait été plongée pendant un siècle. Quand le langage est-il apparu ? L'hypothèse de M. NOTES 1 P.

Christian Existential Phenomenology WHAT IS CEP?Christian Existential Phenomenology is an epistemology (i.e., theory of knowledge) that seeks to explore the relationship between post-modern critical theory (e.g., deconstruction, post-structuralism) and an Existentialism drawing from a Christian worldview and the pragmatism of phenomenological philosophy and modern science. The below items represent critical thinking toward these subjects that I initially began in 1991 and successively built upon with the following items written in 1992, 1993, and 1996. A READING TACTIC INTO CEP The following items are arranged chronologically from bottom to top to indicate the progressive development of CEP. (1996) A Formal Outline of Christian Existential Phenomenology, including a Literary Reading Practice (1993) The Significance of Language Reconsidered, or first steps toward a Christian literary theory(-practice), which might be called: Christian Existential Phenomenology --- follow-up essay, Spring, 1993 [unpublished]

Mapping the United Swears of America – Strong Language Swearing varies a lot from place to place, even within the same country, in the same language. But how do we know who swears what, where, in the big picture? We turn to data – damn big data. With great computing power comes great cartography. Jack Grieve, lecturer in forensic linguistics at Aston University in Birmingham, UK, has created a detailed set of maps of the US showing strong regional patterns of swearing preferences. The red–blue scale shows relative frequency. Polysemy – a word’s multiple meanings – has not been controlled in the graphs, so the hell map includes straight religious uses as well as sweary ones, the pussy map includes cat references, and so on. Hell, damn and bitch are especially popular in the south and southeast. Here’s the full glorious set in alphabetical order (click to enlarge): As Grieve put it, ‘pretty much everyone’s swearing. Updates: Some composite maps, including swears not covered above, are now available on Grieve’s blog. Like this: Like Loading...

Best First Lines 1. Call me Ishmael. —Herman Melville, Moby-Dick (1851) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. riverrun, past Eve and Adam's, from swerve of shore to bend of bay, brings us by a commodius vicus of recirculation back to Howth Castle and Environs. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 124 was spiteful. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100.