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In medicine , a coma (from the Greek κῶμα koma , meaning deep sleep) is a state of unconsciousness lasting more than six hours, [ 1 ] in which a person: cannot be awakened; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal sleep-wake cycle; and, does not initiate voluntary actions. [ 1 ] A person in a state of coma is described as being comatose . Although a coma patient may appear to be awake, they are unable to consciously feel, speak, hear, or move. [ 2 ] For a patient to maintain consciousness, two important neurological components must function impeccably. The first is the cerebral cortex which is the gray matter covering the outer layer of the brain.
Lobotomy ( Greek : λοβός – lobos : " lobe (of brain )"; τομή – tomē : "cut/slice") is a neurosurgical procedure, a form of psychosurgery , also known as a leukotomy or leucotomy (from the Greek λευκός – leukos : "clear/white" and tome ).
Infectious mononucleosis ( IM ; also known as EBV infectious mononucleosis , Pfeiffer's disease , Filatov's disease , [ 1 ] and sometimes colloquially as the kissing disease from its oral transmission or simply as mono in North America and as glandular fever in other English-speaking countries) is an infectious, widespread viral disease caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), one type of herpes virus , to which more than 90% of adults have been exposed. [ 2 ] [ verification needed ] Occasionally, the symptoms can recur at a later period. [ 3 ] Most people are exposed to the virus as children, when the disease produces no noticeable or only flu-like symptoms.
Fibromyalgia ( FM or FMS ) is characterised by chronic widespread pain and allodynia (a heightened and painful response to pressure). [ 1 ] Its exact cause is unknown but is believed to involve psychological, genetic, neurobiological and environmental factors. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Fibromyalgia symptoms are not restricted to pain, leading to the use of the alternative term fibromyalgia syndrome for the condition.
Methamphetamine ( USAN ) ( pron.: / ˌ m ɛ θ æ m ˈ f ɛ t əm iː n / ), also known as metamfetamine ( INN ), [ 2 ] meth , ice , [ 3 ] crystal , [ 4 ] glass , [ 4 ] tik , [ 5 ] N -methylamphetamine , methylamphetamine , and desoxyephedrine , is a psychostimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine class of psychoactive drugs .
Castor oil plant, fruits Castor beans Ricin ( pron.: / ˈ r aɪ s ɪ n / ), from the castor oil plant Ricinus communis , is a highly toxic, naturally occurring protein .
Mupirocin ( Bactroban or Centany ) is an antibiotic of the monoxycarbolic acid class. [ 1 ] It was originally isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 10586, [ 2 ] developed by Beecham . Mupirocin is bacteriostatic at low concentrations and bactericidal at high concentrations. [ 3 ] It is used topically and is effective against Gram-positive bacteria , including MRSA . [ 4 ] Mupirocin is a mixture of several pseudomonic acids, with pseudomonic acid A (PA-A) constituting greater than 90% of the mixture. Also present in mupirocin are pseudomonic acid B with an additional hydroxyl group at C8, [ 5 ] pseudomonic acid C with a double bond between C10 and C11, instead of the epoxide of PA-A, [ 6 ] and pseudomonic acid D with a double bond at C4` and C5` in the 9-hydroxy-nonanoic acid portion of mupirocin. [ 7 ]
Cerebral palsy ( CP ) is a group of non- progressive , [ 1 ] [ 2 ] non- contagious motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various areas of body movement. [ 3 ] Cerebral refers to the cerebrum , which is the affected area of the brain (although the disorder may involve connections between the cortex and other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum ), and palsy refers to disorder of movement. Furthermore, paralytic disorders are not cerebral palsy – the condition of quadriplegia , therefore, should not be confused with spastic quadriplegia, nor tardive dyskinesia with dyskinetic cerebral palsy , nor diplegia with spastic diplegia, and so on.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo ) is the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti neoplastic drugs ("chemotherapeutic agents") as part of a standardized regimen .