Ahura Mazda. Ahura Mazda (/əˌhʊrəˌmæzdə/;), (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, and Hurmuz, Lord or simply as spirit) is the Avestan name for a higher spirit of the Old Iranian religion who was proclaimed as the uncreated spirit by Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism. Ahura Mazda is described as the highest spirit of worship in Zoroastrianism, along with being the first and most frequently invoked spirit in the Yasna. The literal meaning of the word Ahura means light and Mazda means wisdom. Ahura Mazda first appeared in the Achaemenid period (c. 550 – 330 BCE) under Darius I's Behistun Inscription. Until Artaxerxes II (405–04 to 359–58 BCE), Ahura Mazda was worshiped and invoked alone. With Artaxerxes II, Ahura Mazda was invoked in a triad, with Mithra and Apam Napat. Nomenclature "Mazda", or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh (female).
Characteristics Zoroaster's revelation History 101 Names Amun. "Amen Ra" redirects here. For the Belgian band, see Amenra. Amun (also Amon (/ˈɑːmən/), Amen; Ancient Greek: Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major Egyptian deity. He was attested since the Old Kingdom together with his spouse Amaunet. With the 11th dynasty (c. 21st century BC), he rose to the position of patron deity of Thebes by replacing Monthu. After the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos and with the rule of Ahmose I, Amun acquired national importance, expressed in his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Ra.
Early history Amun rose to the position of tutelary deity of Thebes after the end of the First Intermediate Period, under the 11th dynasty. Temple at Karnak The history of Amun as the patron god of Thebes begins in the 20th century BC, with the construction of the Precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak under Senusret I. Major construction work in the Precinct of Amun-Re took place during the 18th dynasty when Thebes became the capital of the unified Ancient Egypt. New Kingdom Decline. Anguta. Anguta is the father of the sea goddess Sedna in Inuit mythology. In certain myths of the Greenland Inuit Anguta (also called "His Father" or Anigut) is considered the creator-god and is the supreme being among of the Inuit people. In other myths, Anguta is merely a mortal widower. His name, meaning "man with something to cut," refers to his mutilating of his daughter which ultimately resulted in her godhood, an act he carried out in both myths.
Anguta is a psychopomp, ferrying souls from the land of the living to the underworld, called Adlivun, where his daughter rules. Those souls must then sleep there for a year. He is also known as Aguta. Angwusnasomtaka. Anu. In Sumerian mythology, Anu (also An; from Sumerian *An 𒀭 = sky, heaven) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. It was believed that he had the power to judge those who had committed crimes, and that he had created the stars as soldiers to destroy the wicked. His attribute was the royal tiara.
His attendant and minister of state was the god Ilabrat. Sumerian religion Ur III Sumerian cuneiform for An(and determinative sign for deities see: DINGIR) Anu existed in Sumerian cosmogony as a dome that covered the flat earth; Outside of this dome was the primordial body of water known as Tiamat (not to be confused with the subterranean Abzu). In Sumerian, the designation "An" was used interchangeably with "the heavens" so that in some cases it is doubtful whether, under the term, the god An or the heavens is being denoted.
Assyro-Babylonian religion See also Notes Arinna. Arinna was the major cult center of the Hittite sun goddess, (thought to be Arinniti) known as dUTU URUArinna "sun goddess of Arinna". Arinna was located near Hattusa, the Hittite capital.The name was also used as a substitute name for Arinniti. The sun goddess of Arinna is the most important one of three important solar deities of the Hittite pantheon, besides UTU nepisas - "the sun of the sky" and UTU taknas - "the sun of the earth". She was considered to be the chief deity in some source, in place of her husband. Her consort was the weather god, Teshub; they and their children were all derived from the former Hattic pantheon. The goddess was also perceived to be a paramount chthonic or earth goddess. In the late 14th century BC, King Mursili II was particularly devoted to the sun goddess of Arinna. See also References Literature Hans G. Baal.
Bronze figurine of a Baal, ca. 14th–12th century BC, found at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) near the Phoenician coast. Musée du Louvre. "Baal" may refer to any god and even to human officials. In some texts it is used for Hadad, a god of thunderstorms, fertility and agriculture, and the lord of Heaven. Since only priests were allowed to utter his divine name, Hadad, Ba‛al was commonly used. Nevertheless, few if any biblical uses of "Baal" refer to Hadad, the lord over the assembly of gods on the holy mount of Heaven; most refer to a variety of local spirit-deities worshiped as cult images, each called baal and regarded in the Hebrew Bible in that context as a false god. Etymology The feminine form is Baʿalah: Hebrew: בַּעֲלָה, Baʕalah, signifying "a mistress: -that has, a mistress"; Arabic: بعلـة, baʿalah, a rare word for "wife". In modern Levantine Arabic, the word báʿal serves as an adjective describing farming that relies only on rainwater as a source of irrigation.
Baiame. Description and history Outside Baiame Cave Mount Yengo He is said to be married to Birrahgnooloo (Birran-gnulu), who is often identified as an emu, and with whom he has a son Daramulum (Dharramalan). In other stories Daramulum is said to be brother to Baiame. It was forbidden to mention or talk about the name of Baiame publicly. Women were not allowed to see drawings of Baiame nor approach Baiame sites—which are often male initiation sites (boras). In rock paintings Baiame is often depicted as a human figure with a large head-dress or hairstyle, with lines of footsteps nearby.
Link with the Christian God Portrayal in the Lake Macquarie Area Significance During the Stolen Generation many tribes lost information about their culture, traditional beliefs, stories and ceremonies, and because Aboriginal customs were not written down and recorded, the effect of the Stolen Generation affected all. References See also Bathala. In ancient Tagalog theology, Bathala (or Batala) was the supreme being and the omnipotent creator of the universe. Antonio de Morga, among others, thought that Bathala meant an omen bird (Tigmamanukan), but the author of the Boxer Codex (1590 b, 379) was advised not to use it in this sense because they did not consider it God but only his messenger.
It was after the arrival of the Spanish missionaries on the Philippines in 16th century that Bathala came to be identified as the Christian God, thus its synonymy with Diyos (God) or Dibino (Divine, e.g. Mabathalang Awa), according to J.V. Panganiban (Diksyunaryo-Tesauro Pilipino-Ingles); in some Visayan languages Bathala also means God. Etymology Other names Religions Pre-Christianity An excerpt from the Boxer Codex (1590b, 367) about Bathala according to the "heathen" Tagalogs: Christianity Bathala in other cultures and ethnic groups An ancient Visayan invocation goes: 1. 2. Tagalog Translation Indonesia Beaivi. Beaivi is the spring and sun goddess of fertility and sanity was worshipped by the Sami, one of the indigenous peoples of Fennoscandia. At Winter solstice a white female reindeer was sacrificed in honour of Beivve, to ensure that she returned to the world and put an end to the long winter season.
At the time of the year when the Sun was returning, butter (which melts in the sunshine) was smeared on the doorposts, as a sacrifice to Beivve, so that she could gain strength during her convalescence and go higher and higher in the sky. At Summer solstice, people made sun-rings out of leaves and pinned them up in her honour. At these occasions, they also ate butter as a sacral meal. Beivve was often accompanied by her daughter, Beaivi-nieida (the sun maiden) in an enclosure of reindeer antlers. Beivve brought fertility back to the Arctic region, she made the plants grow, so that the reindeer flourished and reproduced, and brought wealth and prosperity to the humans. See also Sami shamanism.
Brahma. Etymology In Sanskrit grammar, the noun stem brahman forms two distinct nouns; one is a neuter noun bráhman, whose nominative singular form is brahma ब्रह्म; this noun has a generalized and abstract meaning. Contrasted to the neuter noun is the masculine noun brahmán, whose nominative singular form is brahmā ब्रह्मा. This noun is used to refer to a person, and as the proper name of a deity Brahmā it is the subject matter of the present article. Origin According to Shri Madha Bhagawata Mahapurana, Brahmā was born through Vishnu's navel, Vishnu is the main source of whatsoever exists in the world; that is created by him of a part of his own body materials in this universe,;later he was wondered about the establishment of Mankind in the planet, hence at first he has created a lotus from his navel and from lotus Brahmā origin.
Creations Head of Brahma in sandstone from the Phnom Bok in Bakheng style now in Guimet Museum in Paris. Attributes Appearance Vehicle Brahman. Not to be confused with Brahma, the Hindu god, or brahmin, the caste or varna. In Hinduism, Brahman (/ˈbrɑːmən/; Sanskrit: ब्रह्मन् brahman) is "the unchanging reality amidst and beyond the world", which "cannot be exactly defined". It has been described in Sanskrit as Sat-cit-ānanda (being-consciousness-bliss) and as the highest reality. [note 1][note 2] Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Understanding the concept of Brahman An old Indian legend says that when a child asked his teacher what Brahman was, his teacher puzzled over a way to explain Brahman, and after some thought came up with this answer: "Imagine that here in front of me I have a sachet of salt, a spoon and a bowl of water, I then mix the salt into the water and let it dissolve; after some time I try and remove a spoonful of water from the bowl, a spoonful of water that does not taste salty.
Coyote (mythology) Coyote canoeing, in a traditional story. Coyote is a mythological character common to many Native American cultures, based on the coyote (Canis latrans) animal. This character is usually male and is generally anthropomorphic although he may have some coyote-like physical features such as fur, pointed ears, yellow eyes, a tail and claws. The myths and legends which include Coyote vary widely from culture to culture. Coyote shares many traits with the mythological figure Raven. The coyote (Canis latrans), the animal on which the myths are based Coyote is a figure in the following cultural areas of the Americas, as commonly defined by ethnographers: Coyote is featured in the culture of the following groups who live in the area covered by the state of California: the Karuk, the Maidu of Northern California, the Tongva of Southern California, the Ohlone mythology of Northern California, the Miwok mythology of Northern California, and the Pomo mythology of Northern California.
The Dagda. Description Despite his great power and prestige, the Dagda is sometimes depicted as oafish and crude, even comical, wearing a short, rough tunic that barely covers his rump, dragging his great penis on the ground. Such features are thought to be the additions of Christian redactors for comedic purposes. Tellingly, the Middle Irish language Coir Anmann (The Fitness of Names) paints a less clownish picture: "He was a beautiful god of the heathens, for the Tuatha Dé Danann worshipped him: for he was an earth-god to them because of the greatness of his (magical) power. " The Dagda had an affair with Bóand, wife of Elcmar. In order to hide their affair, Dagda made the sun stand still for nine months; therefore their son, Aengus, was conceived, gestated and born in one day.
He, along with Bóand, helped Aengus search for his love. Whilst Aengus was away the Dagda shared out his land among his children, but Aengus returned to discover that nothing had been saved for him. Dushara. Dushara (Arabic: ذو شرى, "Lord of the Mountain"), also transliterated as Dusares, a deity in the ancient Middle East worshipped by the Nabataeans at Petra and Madain Saleh (of which city he was the patron). He was mothered by Manat the goddess of fate. In Greek times, he was associated with Zeus because he was the chief of the Nabataean pantheon as well as with Dionysus. His sanctuary at Petra contained a great temple in which a large cubical stone was the centrepiece. A shrine to Dusares has been discovered in the harbour of Pozzuoli in Italy. Ancient Puteoli was an important harbour for trade to the Near East, and a Nabataean presence is detected there in the mid 1st century BC. The cult continued in some capacity well into the Roman period and possibly as late as the Islamic period. See also Dushara References Jump up ^ Langdon, S. (1930).
Bibliography Ibn al-Kalbī, The Book of Idols, Being a Translation from the Arabic of the Kitāb al-Asnām. El (deity) Endovelicus. Enlil. Gitche Manitou. Hadad. Hunab Ku. Inyan. Izanagi. Janus. Jupiter (mythology) Marduk. Nana Buluku. Nyame. Odin. Olorun. Perun. Quetzalcoatl. Ra. Shangdi. Shiva. Tāne. Tengri. Teshub. Tupã (mythology) Týr. Ukko. Vishnu. Wakan Tanka. Wōden. Yahweh. Zeus.