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Middle East

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Hebrews. Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is an ethnonym used in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible).

Hebrews

It is mostly taken as synonymous with the Semitic Israelites, especially in the pre-monarchic period when they were still nomadic, but in some instances it may also be used in a wider sense, referring to the Phoenicians, or to other ancient groups, such as the group known as Shasu of Yhw on the eve of the Bronze Age collapse.[1] By the Roman era, Greek Hebraios could refer to the Jews in general, as Strong's Hebrew Dictionary puts it "any of the Jewish Nation"[2] and at other times more specifically to the Jews living in Judea. In Early Christianity, the Greek term Εβραία (feminine) Εβραίες (plural) Εβραί (masculine) refers to Christianizing Jews, as opposed to the gentile Christians and Christian Judaizers (Acts 6:1 among others).

Bedouin. The Bedouin (/ˈbɛdʉ.ɪn/, also Bedouins; from the Arabic badw بَدْو or badawiyyīn/badawiyyūn بَدَوِيُّون, plurals of badawī بَدَوِي,) are a part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arabian ethnic group traditionally divided into tribes, or clans, known in Arabic as ʿašāʾir (عَشَائِر).

Bedouin

The Bedouin form a part of, but are not synonymous with the modern concept of the Arab pan-ethnicity. The word "Arab" was previously synonymous with the Bedouin ethnic group, but has since come to denote all those who speak the Arabic language, as well as Arabised people with no descent from Bedouin tribes. The Bedouin have also been referred to by various other names throughout history, including Qedarites in the Old Testament, and "ʕarab" by the Assyrians (ar-ba-a-a being an adjectival nisba of the noun ʕarab, a name still used for Bedouins today).

Etymology[edit] The term "Bedouin" derives from a plural form of the Arabic word badawī, as it is pronounced in colloquial dialects. Society[edit] Turkish people. Turkish people (Turkish: Türkler) are a Turkic ethnic group primarily living in Turkey, and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities have been established.

Turkish people

Fellah. For the Arabic word for success in the context of Islam, see Falah.

Fellah

For the star, see 67 Ophiuchi. "Fille Fellahin. " A Victorian-era postcard of a young Fellahin girl of Egypt. Fellah (Arabic: فلاح‎, fallāḥ) (plural Fellaheen or Fellahin, فلاحين, fallāḥīn) is a peasant, farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East and North Africa. The word derives from the Arabic word for ploughman or tiller. A fellahin could be seen wearing a simple cotton robe called galabieh. Origins and usage[edit] Fellahin was the term used throughout the Middle East in the Ottoman period and later to refer to villagers and farmers.[1] Nur-eldeen Masalha translates it as "peasants,"[2] although Palestinian anthropologist Nasser Abufarha says that translation misrepresents Palestinian fellahin society, because traditional European usage refers to someone who does not own the land they farm, whereas the fellahin of Palestine own the land, and the means of production, together.[3]

Nubian people. The Nubians are an ethnic group originally from northern Sudan, and southern Egypt.

Nubian people

Amhara people. The Amhara (Amharic: አማራ?

Amhara people

, Āmara;[3] Ge'ez: አምሐራ, ʾÄməḥära) are an ethnic group inhabiting the central highlands of Ethiopia.[2] According to the 2007 national census, they numbered 30,870,651 individuals, comprising 30.89% of the country's population.[1] They speak Amharic, an Afro-Asiatic language of the Semitic branch, and are one of the Habesha peoples. Etymology[edit] The present name for the language and its speakers comes from the medieval province of Amhara, located around Lake Tana at the headwaters of the Blue Nile and including a slightly larger area than Ethiopia's present Amhara Region. The further derivation of the name is debated. Some[who?] History[edit] Main article: Habesha people Certain Semitic-speaking peoples, notably the Habesha, built the Kingdom of Aksum around two millennia ago, and this expanded to contain what is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, and at times, portions of Yemen and Sudan.

Babylonia. Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking Semitic nation state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

Babylonia

It emerged as an independent state c. 1894 BC, with the city of Babylon as its capital. It was often involved in rivalry with its fellow Akkadian state of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia. Babylonia became the major power in the region after Hammurabi (fl. c. 1792 - 1752 BC middle chronology, or c. 1696 – 1654 BC, short chronology) created an empire out of many of the territories of the former Akkadian Empire.

The Babylonian state retained the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use (the language of its native populace), despite its Amorite founders and Kassite successors not being native Akkadians. It retained the Sumerian language for religious use, but by the time Babylon was founded this was no longer a spoken language, having been wholly subsumed by Akkadian. Periods[edit] Old Pre-Babylonian period[edit]