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Zoroaster. Zoroaster (, UK also ; Greek: Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (, UK also ; Avestan: 𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀‎ Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra (Persian: زرتشت‎), was an ancient Iranian spiritual leader who founded what is now known as Zoroastrianism. His teachings challenged the existing traditions of the Indo-Iranian religion and inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Persia. He was a native speaker of Old Avestan and lived in the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau, but his exact birthplace is uncertain.[6] There is no scholarly consensus on when he lived.[8] However, approximating using linguistic and socio-cultural evidence allows for dating to somewhere in the second millennium BCE. Name and etymology[edit] If Zarantuštra is the original form, it may mean "with old/aging camels",[16] related to Avestic zarant-[15] (cf.

Pashto zōṛ and Ossetian zœrond, "old"; Middle Persian zāl, "old"):[17] Date[edit] Life[edit] Tablet Magazine’s 100 Most Jewish Foods List. Middle East. Hebrews. Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is an ethnonym used in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible).

It is mostly taken as synonymous with the Semitic Israelites, especially in the pre-monarchic period when they were still nomadic, but in some instances it may also be used in a wider sense, referring to the Phoenicians, or to other ancient groups, such as the group known as Shasu of Yhw on the eve of the Bronze Age collapse.[1] By the Roman era, Greek Hebraios could refer to the Jews in general, as Strong's Hebrew Dictionary puts it "any of the Jewish Nation"[2] and at other times more specifically to the Jews living in Judea.

In Early Christianity, the Greek term Εβραία (feminine) Εβραίες (plural) Εβραί (masculine) refers to Christianizing Jews, as opposed to the gentile Christians and Christian Judaizers (Acts 6:1 among others). Ιουδαία is the province where the Temple was located. Etymology[edit] Shasu of Yhw[edit] Bedouin. The Bedouin (/ˈbɛdʉ.ɪn/, also Bedouins; from the Arabic badw بَدْو or badawiyyīn/badawiyyūn بَدَوِيُّون, plurals of badawī بَدَوِي,) are a part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arabian ethnic group traditionally divided into tribes, or clans, known in Arabic as ʿašāʾir (عَشَائِر). The Bedouin form a part of, but are not synonymous with the modern concept of the Arab pan-ethnicity. The word "Arab" was previously synonymous with the Bedouin ethnic group, but has since come to denote all those who speak the Arabic language, as well as Arabised people with no descent from Bedouin tribes. The Bedouin have also been referred to by various other names throughout history, including Qedarites in the Old Testament, and "ʕarab" by the Assyrians (ar-ba-a-a being an adjectival nisba of the noun ʕarab, a name still used for Bedouins today).

Etymology[edit] The term "Bedouin" derives from a plural form of the Arabic word badawī, as it is pronounced in colloquial dialects. Society[edit] History[edit] Turkish people. Turkish people (Turkish: Türkler) are a Turkic ethnic group primarily living in Turkey, and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities have been established. Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Oghuz Turkic, indigenous Anatolian, Greek, Persian, Islamic, Ottoman, and Western cultures.[86] Due to the Ottoman past, the Turkish minorities are the second largest ethnic groups in Bulgaria and Cyprus. In addition, as a result of modern migration, a Turkish diaspora has been established, particularly in Western Europe (see Turks in Europe), where large communities have been formed in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

There are also significant Turkish communities living in Australia, the former Soviet Union and North America. Etymology and ethnic identity[edit] In the 19th century, the word Türk only referred to Anatolian villagers. History[edit] Seljuk era[edit] Beyliks era[edit] Derinkuyu Underground City, the World's Deepest Subterranean Metropolis. Many of us have fantasized about having a door in our home that leads us to a hidden world, but can you imagine a buried city laying just behind the walls of your house? In 1963, a Turkish man knocked down a wall in his basement, only to discover the ancient 18-story underground city of Derinkuyu. At one time housing up to 20,000 people, Derinkuyu is one of the largest underground cities in the world. Located in Turkey's Cappadocia region, it's one of over 200 subterranean cities that were carved into the volcanic rock. In fact, Derinkuyu is connected to some of these subterranean settlements by tunnels that run for miles.

Part of what makes it so impressive is the city's depth of over 250 feet, as well as the organization needed to meet the demands of a population living underground. When was the underground city created? It's thought that the Derinkuyu underground city was started by the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, in the 8th to 7th centuries BCE. Derinkuyu Today. Fellah. For the Arabic word for success in the context of Islam, see Falah. For the star, see 67 Ophiuchi. "Fille Fellahin. " A Victorian-era postcard of a young Fellahin girl of Egypt. Fellah (Arabic: فلاح‎, fallāḥ) (plural Fellaheen or Fellahin, فلاحين, fallāḥīn) is a peasant, farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East and North Africa. A fellahin could be seen wearing a simple cotton robe called galabieh. Origins and usage[edit] Fellahin was the term used throughout the Middle East in the Ottoman period and later to refer to villagers and farmers.[1] Nur-eldeen Masalha translates it as "peasants,"[2] although Palestinian anthropologist Nasser Abufarha says that translation misrepresents Palestinian fellahin society, because traditional European usage refers to someone who does not own the land they farm, whereas the fellahin of Palestine own the land, and the means of production, together.[3] Fellahin in Egypt[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Nubian people. The Nubians are an ethnic group originally from northern Sudan, and southern Egypt. The Nubian people in Sudan inhabit the region between Wadi Halfa in the north and Al Dabbah in the south. The main Nubian groups from north to south are the Halfaweyen, Sikut, Mahas, and Dongola. They speak the Nubian languages. There are also Sudanese Nubian minorities in Kenya and Uganda. In ancient times Nubians were depicted by Egyptians as having very dark skin, often shown with hooped earrings and with braided or extended hair. History[edit] A Nubian woman circa 1900 Further information: Nubia Nubians are the people of southern Egypt and northern Sudan, settling along the banks of the Nile from Aswan. The Old Nubian language is attested from the 8th century, and is thus the oldest recorded language of Africa outside of the Afro-Asiatic group.

Old Nubian Manuscript The name "Nubia" or "Nubian" has a contested origin. Nubia consisted of four regions with varied agriculture and landscapes. Culture[edit] Amhara people. The Amhara (Amharic: አማራ? , Āmara;[3] Ge'ez: አምሐራ, ʾÄməḥära) are an ethnic group inhabiting the central highlands of Ethiopia.[2] According to the 2007 national census, they numbered 30,870,651 individuals, comprising 30.89% of the country's population.[1] They speak Amharic, an Afro-Asiatic language of the Semitic branch, and are one of the Habesha peoples.

Etymology[edit] The present name for the language and its speakers comes from the medieval province of Amhara, located around Lake Tana at the headwaters of the Blue Nile and including a slightly larger area than Ethiopia's present Amhara Region. The further derivation of the name is debated. History[edit] Main article: Habesha people Certain Semitic-speaking peoples, notably the Habesha, built the Kingdom of Aksum around two millennia ago, and this expanded to contain what is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, and at times, portions of Yemen and Sudan.

The Amharic language is the official language of Ethiopia. Language[edit] Culture[edit] Babylonia. Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking Semitic nation state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq). It emerged as an independent state c. 1894 BC, with the city of Babylon as its capital. It was often involved in rivalry with its fellow Akkadian state of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia. Babylonia became the major power in the region after Hammurabi (fl. c. 1792 - 1752 BC middle chronology, or c. 1696 – 1654 BC, short chronology) created an empire out of many of the territories of the former Akkadian Empire. The Babylonian state retained the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use (the language of its native populace), despite its Amorite founders and Kassite successors not being native Akkadians.

It retained the Sumerian language for religious use, but by the time Babylon was founded this was no longer a spoken language, having been wholly subsumed by Akkadian. Periods[edit] Old Pre-Babylonian period[edit] The Empire of Hammurabi.