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By Pat Shipman
Old Style and New Style dates Old Style (or O.S. ) and New Style (or N.S. ) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year has been adjusted to start on 1 January (N.S.) even though contemporary documents use a different start of year (O.S.); or to indicate that a date conforms to the Julian calendar (O.S.), formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar (N.S.). [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] The internationally used Latin cognates of O.S. are stili veteris or stilo vetere , abbreviated st.v. and translating as "(of) old style", and the respective cognates of N.S. are stili novi or stilo novo , abbreviated st.n. and translating as "(of) new style". [ 5 ] Like the English speaking countries, other countries may use additional local language cognates like the German a.St.