background preloader

Critical Thinking

Facebook Twitter

Critical Thinking: A Necessary Skill in the Age of Spin. The ability to think critically is one skill separating innovators from followers. Critical thinking reduces the power of advertisers, the unscrupulous and the pretentious, and can neutralize the sway of an unsupported argument. This is a skill most students enjoy learning because they see immediately that it gives them more control. Devastating Consequences That said, young people -- without significant life experience and anxious to fit in -- are especially vulnerable to surface appeal. Targeted advertising affects their buying and eating habits; choosing friends for the wrong reasons can lead to real heartache. Every educator is in a position to teach students how to gather information, evaluate it, screen out distractions and think for themselves.

A World of Illusions Seeing beyond superficial appearances is especially important today because we are surrounded by illusions, many of them deliberately created. How False Ideas Creep Into Our Belief Systems Understanding Motivations. Insight. Insight is a new five-level English course for secondary students. It is a thought-provoking course which will challenge your students to reach their full potential. insight challenges, develops and inspires your students. It motivates and engages them with thought provoking topics and information rich texts which will challenge their opinions and inspire them to think critically about the world they live in. It prepares them for a life of learning with a clear focus on developing their skills and autonomous learning habits. It gives your students a deeper awareness of how language works, furnishing them with not just the meaning of vocabulary but also the rules that govern its use, allowing your students to use it with confidence.

It gives you a set of interactive online teaching tools to enrich your students' learning, both in the classroom and at home. Made to Stick. Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die is a book by brothers Chip and Dan Heath published by Random House on January 2, 2007.[1] The book continues the idea of "stickiness" popularized by Malcolm Gladwell in The Tipping Point, seeking to explain what makes an idea or concept memorable or interesting. A similar style to Gladwell's is used, with a number of stories and case studies followed by principles. The stories range from urban legends, such as the "Kidney Heist" in the introduction; to business stories, as with the story of Southwest Airlines, "the low price airline"; to inspirational, personal stories such as that of Floyd Lee, a passionate mess hall manager. Each chapter includes a section entitled "Clinic", in which the principles of the chapter are applied to a specific case study or idea to demonstrate the principle's application.

Overview[edit] The book's outline follows the acronym "SUCCES" (with the last s omitted). Authors[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Thinking, Fast and Slow. Thinking, Fast and Slow is a best-selling[1] 2011 book by Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics winner Daniel Kahneman which summarizes research that he conducted over decades, often in collaboration with Amos Tversky.[2][3] It covers all three phases of his career: his early days working on cognitive biases, his work on prospect theory, and his later work on happiness. The book's central thesis is a dichotomy between two modes of thought: "System 1" is fast, instinctive and emotional; "System 2" is slower, more deliberative, and more logical.

The book delineates cognitive biases associated with each type of thinking, starting with Kahneman's own research on loss aversion. From framing choices to substitution, the book highlights several decades of academic research to suggest that people place too much confidence in human judgment. Prospect theory[edit] One example is that people are loss-averse: they are more likely to act to avert a loss than to achieve a gain.

Two systems[edit] Conjunction fallacy. I am particularly fond of this example [the Linda problem] because I know that the [conjoint] statement is least probable, yet a little homunculus in my head continues to jump up and down, shouting at me—“but she can’t just be a bank teller; read the description.” The conjunction fallacy is a formal fallacy that occurs when it is assumed that specific conditions are more probable than a single general one. The most often-cited example of this fallacy originated with Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman:[2][3] Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations.Which is more probable?

Linda is a bank teller.Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. The majority of those asked chose option 2. . , and Joint versus separate evaluation[edit] Criticism of the Linda problem[edit] Other demonstrations[edit] Save The Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus. Help Save The ENDANGERED From EXTINCTION! The Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus Rare photo of the elusive tree octopus The Pacific Northwest tree octopus (Octopus paxarbolis) can be found in the temperate rainforests of the Olympic Peninsula on the west coast of North America. An intelligent and inquisitive being (it has the largest brain-to-body ratio for any mollusk), the tree octopus explores its arboreal world by both touch and sight.

Reaching out with one of her eight arms, each covered in sensitive suckers, a tree octopus might grab a branch to pull herself along in a form of locomotion called tentaculation; or she might be preparing to strike at an insect or small vertebrate, such as a frog or rodent, or steal an egg from a bird's nest; or she might even be examining some object that caught her fancy, instinctively desiring to manipulate it with her dexterous limbs (really deserving the title "sensory organs" more than mere "limbs",) in order to better know it. Why It's Endangered. The Flame Challenge | Center for Communicating Science. Winner: Written CategoryNick WilliamsLivermore, California Winner: Visual CategorySteve MaguireOntario, Canada Click to see the winning entries and finalists in each category!

This Year Hundreds of scientists tackled this year’s question, “What is time?” What should next year’s Flame Challenge question be? If you are a 9 to 12 year-old and have always wanted to know the answer to a burning question about science, click here (kids only!). In the fall, judging schools will be contacted to vote on the 2014 Flame Challenge question. Edutopia Webinar - How the Brain Learns Best: Strategies to Make Learning Stick. Free online tutorial for using JING. THIS IS WATER David Foster Wallace. DAVID FOSTER WALLACE, IN HIS OWN WORDS. IN MEMORIAM | September 19th 2008 The world of letters has lost a giant. We have felt nourished by the mournful graspings of sites dedicated to his memory ("He was my favourite" ~ Zadie Smith), and we grieve for the books we will never see. But perhaps the best tribute is one he wrote himself ...

Special to MORE INTELLIGENT LIFE This is the commencement address he gave to the graduates of Kenyon College in 2005. It captures his electric mind, and also his humility--the way he elevated and made meaningful, beautiful, many of the lonely thoughts that rattle around in our heads. The way he put better thoughts in our heads, too. (If anybody feels like perspiring [cough], I'd advise you to go ahead, because I'm sure going to. This is a standard requirement of US commencement speeches, the deployment of didactic little parable-ish stories. Here's another didactic little story. The point here is that I think this is one part of what teaching me how to think is really supposed to mean.

THE MARVELS AND THE FLAWS OF INTUITIVE THINKING: Edge Master Class 2011. We ended up studying something that we call "heuristics and biases". Those were shortcuts, and each shortcut was identified by the biases with which it came. The biases had two functions in that story. They were interesting in themselves, but they were also the primary evidence for the existence of the heuristics. If you want to characterize how something is done, then one of the most powerful ways of characterizing the way the mind does anything is by looking at the errors that the mind produces while it's doing it because the errors tell you what it is doing. Correct performance tells you much less about the procedure than the errors do. We focused on errors. That was 40 years ago, and a fair amount has happened in the last 40 years.

One of the things that was was not entirely clear to us when we started, and that has become a lot clearer now, was that there are two ways that thoughts come to mind. I wouldn't say it's generally accepted. Click to Enlarge Quite interesting. I'm done. High School Teachers. These Thinker's Guides are available through electronic license for educational institutions. Faculty and administrators - email cct@criticalthinking.org to inquire.

This set includes the thinker’s guides which focus on the foundations of critical thinking. It also includes those guides useful in contextualizing essential critical thinking concepts and principles for classroom instruction. And it contains the thinker’s guides we recommend for student use. Resources and Downloads for Teaching Critical Thinking. Tips for downloading: PDF files can be viewed on a wide variety of platforms -- both as a browser plug-in or a stand-alone application -- with Adobe's free Acrobat Reader program. Click here to download the latest version of Adobe Reader. Click on any title link below to view or download that file. Resources On This Page: Lesson Plans & Rubrics KIPP King Curriculum Planning Guide <img height="12" width="11" class="media-image media-element file-content-image" src="/sites/default/files/styles/content_image_breakpoints_theme_edutopia_desktop_1x/public/content/08/pdficon.gif?

Back to Top Tools for Critical Thinking Scope and Sequence, Speech and Composition <img alt="" title="" class="media-image" width="11" height="12" src="/sites/default/files/styles/content_image_breakpoints_theme_edutopia_desktop_1x/public/content/08/pdficon.gif? Culture at KIPP. Ten Takeaway Tips for Teaching Critical Thinking. Suggestions from educators at KIPP King Collegiate High School on how to help develop and assess critical-thinking skills in your students.

Ideally, teaching kids how to think critically becomes an integral part of your approach, no matter what subject you teach. But if you're just getting started, here are some concrete ways you can begin leveraging your students' critical-thinking skills in the classroom and beyond. 1. Questions, questions, questions. Questioning is at the heart of critical thinking, so you want to create an environment where intellectual curiosity is fostered and questions are encouraged.

For Jared Kushida, who teaches a global politics class called War and Peace at KIPP King Collegiate, "lecturing" means integrating a flow of questions throughout a lesson. In the beginning stages, you may be doing most of the asking to show your students the types of questions that will lead to higher-level thinking and understanding. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

How KIPP Teachers Learn to Teach Critical Thinking. Kellan McNulty: Prior to coming to Kipp, I tried to do a fishbowl discussion and it failed. And I had the kind of vague idea of how to do it, but I didn't have the specific tools. When I got to Kipp last year, we had a really good professional development on Socratic seminars that really showed me kind of the little tricks that made it work. My name is Kellan McNulty and I teach tenth grade AP world history and eleventh grade AP US history at Kipp King Collegiate. Katie Kirkpatrick: I think the hardest thing for teachers in adopting a critical thinking model is that it requires them to kinda step back and let the students do all the work. And I think for a teacher who's used to being the agent of knowledge, it can be hard for them to take a back seat to the learning that's happening in the classroom. My name is Katie Kirkpatrick and I'm the dean of instruction at Kipp King Collegiate High School.

I also teach ninth grade speech and composition. Three Steps to Critical Thinking. Edward Charles Francis Publius de Bono is a bona fide genius. The author, inventor, Rhodes scholar and Nobel prize-nominated economist graduated from college at age 15. In the field of education and business, he is famous for originating the term lateral thinking. In his spare time, he also wrote Six Thinking Hats and several other books on creativity. Of all his contributions to the field of education, there is one critical thinking method that I use in classes more than any other: the PMI, a brainstorming model built on the categories of plus, minus and interesting. Creative and Critical Thinking Can Be Taught De Bono repeats throughout his writing that critical and creative thinking can be taught. Teaching scenario #1 When you ask a volunteer from your AP English class to analyze the Gettysburg Address, not one hand raises.

Teaching scenario #2 Teaching scenario #3 You want to prime your 7th grade social studies students to look more deeply at the pros and cons of gun control legislation. Problem Solving. Problem-solving is an art and it can be learned. Below is Edward De Bono’s useful five-step process for problem-solving. There are however different types of problem and they require different thinking styles in order to crack them. Here are some problems to give you a bit of practice. The retrograde chess problems do not require you to be a chess expert; just a logical thinker (though you need to know how the pieces move). The Lateral Thinking problems require a different approach – you have to think of the answer first, and then figure out why it fits the facts.

Edward DeBono’s Model To - Where do you want to get To? The above model is very useful when it comes to real-life problems; the sort of problems that have many possible solutions. With many problems, we tend to get stuck at the PO phase – we call this lack of inspiration. Retrograde Chess Problems Problem Number #1 by Raymond Smullyan This is an excellent problem for getting you started on Retrograde Analysis. Black moved last. 50_Brain_Teasers_and_Lateral_Thinking_Puzzles.