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Simulacra and Simulation ( French : Simulacres et Simulation ) is a 1981 philosophical treatise by Jean Baudrillard seeking to interrogate the relationship among reality, symbols, and society. Simulacra are copies that depict things that either had no reality to begin with, or that no longer have an original. [ 1 ] Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. [ 2 ] [ edit ] Overview ...The simulacrum is never that which conceals the truth—it is the truth which conceals that there is none. The simulacrum is true. [ 3 ] Simulacra and Simulation is most known for its discussion of symbols, signs, and how they relate to contemporaneity (simultaneous existences).
A skeuomorph is a physical ornament or design on an object made to resemble another material or technique. Examples include pottery embellished with imitation rivets reminiscent of similar pots made of metal, [ 1 ] or a software calendar application which displays the days organised on animated month pages in imitation of a paper desk calendar. [ 2 ] [ edit ] Pronunciation and etymology
Extropianism , also referred to as the philosophy of Extropy , is an evolving framework of values and standards for continuously improving the human condition. Extropians believe that advances in science and technology will some day let people live indefinitely. An extropian may wish to contribute to this goal, e.g. by doing research and development or volunteering to test new technology. Extropianism describes a pragmatic consilience of transhumanist thought guided by a proactionary approach to human evolution and progress .
Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) Varoluşçu felsefenin önde gelen isimlerinden biri olarak bilinen Alman filozof. Yaşamı [ değiştir ] Meßkirch 'deki The Mesmerhaus, Heidegger'in büyüdüğü yer Meßkirch'de Martin Heidegger´in mezarı
Blindsight is the ability of people who are cortically blind due to lesions in their striate cortex , also known as primary visual cortex or V1, to respond to visual stimuli that they do not consciously see. [ 1 ] The majority of studies on blindsight are conducted on patients who are blind on only one side of their visual field. Following the destruction of the striate cortex, patients are asked to detect, localize, and discriminate amongst visual stimuli that are presented to their blindside often in a forced-response or guessing situation, even though they cannot actually see the stimulus. Research shows a surprising amount of accuracy in the guesses of blind patients. This ability to guess, at levels significantly above chance, aspects of a visual stimulus, such as location, or type of movement without any conscious awareness of any stimuli is known as Type 1 blindsight.
In artificial intelligence research, GOFAI ("Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Intelligence") describes the oldest original approach to achieving artificial intelligence , based on logic and problem solving. In robotics research, the term is extended as GOFAIR ("Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Intelligence and Robotics"). GOFAI was the dominant paradigm of AI research from the middle fifties until the late 1980s. After that time, newer sub-symbolic approaches to AI were introduced. The term "GOFAI" was coined by John Haugeland in his 1986 book Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea , which explored the philosophical implications of artificial intelligence research. The approach is based on the assumption that many aspects of intelligence can be achieved by the manipulation of symbols , an assumption defined as the " physical symbol systems hypothesis " by Allen Newell and Herbert A.
person deixis, place deixis and time deixis In linguistics , deixis (IPA: /ˈdaɪksɪs/) [ 1 ] refers to the phenomenon wherein understanding the meaning of certain words and phrases in an utterance requires contextual information . Words are deictic if their semantic meaning is fixed but their denotational meaning varies depending on time and/or place.
Subsumption architecture is a reactive robot architecture heavily associated with behavior-based robotics . The term was introduced by Rodney Brooks and colleagues in 1986. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Subsumption has been widely influential in autonomous robotics and elsewhere in real-time AI . [ edit ] Description
Sensor fusion is the combining of sensory data or data derived from sensory data from disparate sources such that the resulting information is in some sense better than would be possible when these sources were used individually. The term better in this case can mean more accurate, more complete, or more dependable, or refer to the result of an emerging view, such as stereoscopic vision (calculation of depth information by combining two-dimensional images from two cameras at slightly different viewpoints). [ 1 ] The data sources for a fusion process are not specified to originate from identical sensors. One can distinguish direct fusion , indirect fusion and fusion of the outputs of the former two. Direct fusion is the fusion of sensor data from a set of heterogeneous or homogeneous sensors, soft sensors , and history values of sensor data, while indirect fusion uses information sources like a priori knowledge about the environment and human input.
Michael Polanyi , FRS [ 1 ] (11 March 1891 – 22 February 1976) was a Hungarian polymath , who made important theoretical contributions to physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy. He argues that positivism supplies a false account of knowing, which if taken seriously undermines our highest achievements as human beings. His wide-ranging research in physical science included chemical kinetics, x-ray diffraction, and adsorption of gases. He pioneered the theory of fiber diffraction analysis in 1921, and the dislocation theory of plastic deformation of ductile metals and other materials in 1934. He emigrated to Germany, working at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, and then to England, working at the University of Manchester. An outstanding teacher; two of his pupils won Nobel Prizes.
Biosemiotics (from the Greek bios meaning "life" and semeion meaning "sign") is a growing field of semiotics and biology that studies the production, action, and interpretation of signs and codes [ 1 ] in the biological realm. Biosemiotics attempts to integrate the findings of scientific biology and semiotics , proposing a paradigmatic shift in the occidental scientific view of life , demonstrating that semiosis (sign process, including meaning and interpretation) is its immanent and intrinsic feature. The term "biosemiotic" was first used by Friedrich S. Rothschild in 1962, but Thomas Sebeok and Thure von Uexküll have done much to popularize the term and field. [ 2 ] The field, which challenges normative views of biology, is generally divided between theoretical and applied biosemiotics. [ edit ] Definition
Charles Babbage Charles Babbage , ( 26 Aralık 1791 – 18 Ekim , 1871 ) tarihleri arasında yaşamış önemli bir İngiliz matematikçi , analitik filozof , makine mühendisi ve programlanabilir bilgisayar fikrini ortaya atan (proto)-bilgisayar bilimcisi mucit. Çalışmalarının bir kısmı Londra Bilim Müzesi'nde sergilenmektedir. Mekanik olarak çalışabildiği sonradan kanıtlanmış bir hesap makinesi geliştirmiştir.
A logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function , that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more logical inputs, and produces a single logical output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate , one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out , or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device [ 1 ] (see Ideal and real op-amps for comparison). Logic gates are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors acting as electronic switches , but can also be constructed using electromagnetic relays ( relay logic ), fluidic logic , pneumatic logic , optics , molecules , or even mechanical elements.
The Homeostat is one of the first devices capable of adapting itself to the environment; it exhibited behaviours such as habituation, reinforcement and learning through its ability to maintain homeostasis in a changing environment. It was built by William Ross Ashby in 1948 at Barnwood House Hospital . It was an adaptive ultrastable system, consisting of four interconnected Royal Air Force bomb control units [ 1 ] with inputs, feedback , and magnetically driven, water-filled potentiometers .
Structural coupling is the term for structure-determined (and structure- determining) engagement of a given unity with either its environment or another unity. The process of engagement which effects a "...history or recurrent interactions leading to the structural congruence between two (or more) systems" (Maturana & Varela, 1987, p. 75). It is ‘...a historical process leading to the spatio-temporal coincidence between the changes of state..’ (Maturana, 1975, p. 321) in the participants.