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What are confounding factors and how do they affect studies? What are confounding factors and how do they affect studies?

What are confounding factors and how do they affect studies?

Designing a study is not easy. Aetiology - Just another site. Likelihood of Null Effects of Large NHLBI Clinical Trials Has Increased over Time. Abstract Background We explore whether the number of null results in large National Heart Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) funded trials has increased over time.

Likelihood of Null Effects of Large NHLBI Clinical Trials Has Increased over Time

Methods We identified all large NHLBI supported RCTs between 1970 and 2012 evaluating drugs or dietary supplements for the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular disease. Trials were included if direct costs >$500,000/year, participants were adult humans, and the primary outcome was cardiovascular risk, disease or death. Results 17 of 30 studies (57%) published prior to 2000 showed a significant benefit of intervention on the primary outcome in comparison to only 2 among the 25 (8%) trials published after 2000 (χ2=12.2,df= 1, p=0.0005). Conclusions. This map of the world’s scientific research is disturbingly unequal. If the world were mapped according to how many scientific research papers each country produced, it would take on a rather bizarre, uneven appearance.

This map of the world’s scientific research is disturbingly unequal

The Northern hemisphere would balloon beyond recognition. The global south, including Africa, would effectively melt off the map. This image makes a dramatic point about the complexities of global inequalities in knowledge production and exchange. Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs. DREADDs are engineered G-protein coupled receptors which are activated by otherwise inert drug-like small molecules.

Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs

In the example shown below, an evolved M3-muscarinic receptor is activated by the small molecule clozapine-N-oxide (CNO; see Armbruster et al, PNAS 2007 for details) ​ DREADDs are currently used by many labs to remotely and non-invasively control neuronal signaling Helpful reviews on the technology: Rogan and Roth, Pharmacol Rev 2011 Jun;63(2):291-315.

Epub 2011 Mar 17. ​ Dong et al, Mol Biosystems 2010 Aug;6(8):1376-80. DREADD users blog. Reproducibility crisis: Blame it on the antibodies. Illustration by Nik Spencer/Nature In 2006, things were looking pretty good for David Rimm, a pathologist at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut.

Reproducibility crisis: Blame it on the antibodies

He had developed a test to guide effective treatment of the skin cancer melanoma, and it promised to save lives. The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - Advanced Information. Advanced Information [pdf] Gene Modification in Mice Introduction The 2007 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine is awarded to Drs Mario R.

The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - Advanced Information

Capecchi, Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells. The discoveries Martin Evans identified and isolated the embryonic stem cell of the early embryo, the cell from which all cells of the adult organism are derived. Proteins and research: Scientists figure out to unboil an egg. As anyone who has ever cooked one knows, egg "whites" are clear until they are cooked.

Proteins and research: Scientists figure out to unboil an egg

Egg whites are high in protein, and when they cook, the proteins start to unfold, and then fold back up in a tighter, more tangled structure. This is why they go from being clear and mucus-like to white and rubbery. Researchers at the University of California, Irvine, and Flinders University in Australia have figured out a process that can pull apart the tangled proteins allowing them to refold and return to their original structure. Health and science. Synthetic Biology and metabolic engineering. New Sciences. SCIENCE. Mysteries that science has yet to explain.

Microsoft PowerPoint - NSF proposal writing.ppt - insideview NSF.pdf. Scientists Create World’s 1st Practical Artificial Leaf, 10X as Efficient as the Real Thing. Timeline of Important Dates in the History of Electromagnetic Technology and Mind Control. This timeline will demonstrate the US government and the military industrial complex involvement and the state of the technology from several independent unclassified reliable sources.

Timeline of Important Dates in the History of Electromagnetic Technology and Mind Control

How Alan Turing decoded the secrets of life. Our picks of the week from around the web, including Alan Turing’s decoding of natural patterns, the man behind graphene and the ethics around treating Ebola.

How Alan Turing decoded the secrets of life

Reports & Issue Briefs. APHA develops reports and issue briefs on critical public health issues such as health reform, environmental public health, food and nutrition, preparedness, quality improvement, school, health, and education, and transportation.

Reports & Issue Briefs

Recent Release! Health in All Policies: A Guide for State and Local Governments -- October 2013 This guide was created by the American Public Health Association, California Department of Public Health, and the Public Health Institute in response to growing interest in using collaborative approaches to improve population health by embedding health considerations into decision-making processes across a broad array of sectors.

The Guide draws heavily on the experiences of the California Health in All Policies Task Force and incorporates information from the published and gray literature and interviews with people across the country. Download the guide and learn more about health in all policies. Improving Community Health through Policy -- May 2013 Health Reform. Ingénieries de la sérendipité. Cela ressemble à de la sérendipité, ça à la goût de la sérendipité ... mais ce n'est pas nécessairement de la sérendipité. Historiquement, c'est Google qui fut le premier moteur de recherche à instrumentaliser un processus de fortuité, via le bouton "Feeling Lucky" (lequel n'a d'ailleurs rien à voir avec une quelconque sérendipité littérale, puisque ledit bouton se contente de vous amener sur le premier résultat renvoyé par le moteur de recherche).

Comme nous l'expliquions en détail dans ce remarquable article co-écrit avec mes excellents collègues (:-), ce bouton est avant tout un argument marketing et un élément fondateur de la sémiotique Googléenne. Systematic Serendipity: Finding the Undiscovered Answers to Science Questions. Healthiest Nation in One Generation. Take Action!

Participate in APHA's legislative action alerts and urge policymakers to vote for and act on behalf of public health programs and services. While the United States spends more on health care than any other nation in the world, it lags behind many developed nations in important health measures. Compared with other developed nations, the United States has relatively low life expectancy, high infant mortality rates, a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and persistent health inequities. Optogenetics: Controlling the Brain with Light [Extended Version] Despite the enormous efforts of clinicians and researchers, our limited insight into psychiatric disease (the worldwide-leading cause of years of life lost to death or disability) hinders the search for cures and contributes to stigmatization.

Clearly, we need new answers in psychiatry. But as philosopher of science Karl Popper might have said, before we can find the answers, we need the power to ask new questions. In other words, we need new technology. Developing appropriate techniques is difficult, however, because the mammalian brain is beyond compare in its complexity. Biophoton Communication: Can Cells Talk Using Light? One of the more curious backwaters of biology is the study of biophotons: optical or ultraviolet photons emitted by living cells in a way that is distinct from conventional bioluminescence. Nobody is quite sure how cells produce biophotons but the latest thinking is that various molecular processes can emit photons and that these are transported to the cell surface by energy carying excitons.

A similar process carries the energy from photons across giant protein matrices during photosynthesis. Whatever the mechanism, a growing number of biologists are convinced that when you switch off the lights, cells are bathed in the pale fireworks of a biophoton display. [1205.4134] Photonic Communications and Information Encoding in Biological Systems. Peer Reviewed Articles - Open Access Journals. Specials : Nature. ISD. Fukushima : 2 000 travailleurs exposés à un cancer de la thyroïde. The 5 Most Profitable Drugs They Never Cure You - New York News - Runn (...) In this week's cover story, writer Keegan Hamilton investigates the controversy surrounding ibogaine, the experimental hallucinogen drug that has helped kick meth and heroin addictions.

Ibogaine is illegal, even though its power to cure addicts has been proven. Hamilton's story describes the many reasons the medical establishment and the government are wary of Ibogaine, despite its benefits, but one of them really stood out: Because Ibogaine is an outright cure, drug companies want nothing to do with it. Martin Kuehne, a chemist at the University of Vermont, is quoted in the story, saying, "Pharmaceutical companies don't like cures.

IUF.SIB.Radioelements. Naturally Good Magazine. <A HREF="images/cover.jpg"> Heal thyself! Naturally Good Magazine is the do-it-yourself guide to maintaining health, preventing disease, nutrition, detoxification, and curing disease naturally with God's medicines. Biozone. Research Update:Black Sesame or Sesamum indicum L.MDidea-Extracts Professional.R067. CERN: Light Speed May Have Been Exceeded By Subatomic Particle. CERN Confirms New Particle. "Higgs Boson Will Unlock Great Mysteries of the Universe" 1303.0614v1. Quantum "spooky action at a distance" travels at least 10,000 times faster than light. The Ten Most Disturbing Scientific Discoveries. NASA finds extra-terrestrial amino-acids in Sudan meteorites. Astronomy: Planets in our galaxy may be vastly more numerous than believed - New solar fuel device that ”mimics plant life” Scientists have unveiled a prototype solar device that mimics plant life, turning the Sun’s energy into fuel.

Harvard Controls The Minds of Worms…With Lasers! (video. Meth-addicted snails prove that amphetamines are the ultimate memory-enhancer. Top 10 Bizarre But True Drugs And Their Effects. Les secrets de la jungle d'Amérique - La société des araignées. Search Results spider web » A Curious Mind. Effect of psychoactive drugs on Spiders. Physiology & Behavior - The effects of neurotoxins on web-geometry and web-building behaviour in Araneus diadematus Cl.

Drugged spiders’ web spinning may hold keys to understanding animal behavior  Spiders On Drugs. Top 50 Physics Ideas: the principles that changed the world. Dreamy Images Reveal Beauty in Physics. Physicists Predict Properties of Prime Numbers from Freezing Liquids. Scientists create light from vacuum. Quantum Levitation. Sound cloaks enter the third dimension. Simple invisibility cloaks hide toys, pets, people. Phys. Rev. X 3, 041011 (2013): Experimental Demonstration of Active Electromagnetic Cloaking. The 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - Press Release. Mono100A-23.pdf. Epigenetics. Writing the Book in DNA. Molecular Fountain of Youth Discovered. Flip of a single molecular switch makes an old mouse brain young. Article metrics for: Towards practical, high-capacity, low-maintenance information storage in synthesized DNA : Nature.

Artificial Spider Silk Made From Bacteria to Come From Better Understanding of How Molecules Fit Together. Forensics & Investigations. Imaging Latent Fingerprints by Electrochemiluminescence - Xu - 2012 - Angewandte Chemie International Edition. Fingerprints Could Glow for Future Forensics. Glowing fingerprints: Researchers make latent fingerprints visible with help from electrochemiluminescence. Chemical Imaging: Potential New Crime Busting Tool. Data. Why Too Much Data Disables Your Decision Making. Attention tunes the mind's ear. Cpr_Actigraphy. Copyright & Fair Use - Fair Use. Directory of Open Access Journals. Discoveries - Computer Scientists Win Academy Award for Technical Achievement in Special Effects. Search Results. PNNL: Research Highlights: Spinning Peptides, Not Webs, From Spider Silk. Dew-Spangled Spider Webs Could Inspire High-Tech Water Collection. Youth violence_datasheet_2012-a.

Fear prompts teens to act impulsively. Making Behavioural Economics a Qualitative Reality. A qualitative mindset. Weird Science: Biotechnology as Art Form. Scientists discover tiny solar panels that create themselves. Wrinkled doughnut solves geometrical mystery - physics-math - 30 April 2012. Microscopic Sea Creatures. Systems Theories. TECHNOLOGY. Tech Advances. Technology blogs.

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