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Carlos Castaneda. Carlos Castaneda (birthdate unclear – died April 27, 1998),[1] was an American author with a Ph.D. in anthropology.

Carlos Castaneda

Early life[edit] He moved to the United States in the early 1950s and became a naturalized citizen in 1957. Castaneda was educated at UCLA (B.A. 1962; Ph.D. 1973).[2] Career[edit] Historical revisionism. Scholarly process[edit]

Historical revisionism

Table of Contents. Francis Ford Coppola. Francis Ford Coppola (/ˈkoʊpələ/; born April 7, 1939) is an American film director, producer and screenwriter.

Francis Ford Coppola

He was part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmaking. He followed with The Godfather Part II in 1974, which became the first sequel to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. Highly regarded by critics, it brought him three more Academy Awards: Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Director and Best Picture, and made him the second director, after Billy Wilder, to be honored three times for the same film. The Conversation, which he directed, produced and wrote, was released that same year, winning the Palme d'Or at the 1974 Cannes Film Festival. He next directed 1979's Apocalypse Now.

Ivan Illich. Ivan Illich (/ɪˈvɑːn ˈɪlɪtʃ/;[1] 4 September 1926 – 2 December 2002) was an Austrian philosopher, Roman Catholic priest, and "maverick social critic"[2] of the institutions of contemporary Western culture and their effects on the provenance and practice of education, medicine, work, energy use, transportation, and economic development.

Ivan Illich

Personal life[edit] He wrote a dissertation focusing on the historian Arnold J. Toynbee and would return to that subject in his later years. Michel Foucault. Born in Poitiers, France to an upper-middle-class family, Foucault was educated at the Lycée Henri-IV and then the École Normale Supérieure, where he developed an interest in philosophy and came under the influence of his tutors Jean Hyppolite and Louis Althusser.

Michel Foucault

After several years as a cultural diplomat abroad, he returned to France and published his first major book, The History of Madness. After obtaining work between 1960 and 1966 at the University of Clermont-Ferrand, he produced two more significant publications, The Birth of the Clinic and The Order of Things, which displayed his increasing involvement with structuralism, a theoretical movement in social anthropology from which he later distanced himself. These first three histories were examples of a historiographical technique Foucault was developing which he called "archaeology".

Immanuel Kant. Immanuel Kant (/kænt/;[1] German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy.

Immanuel Kant

Order of the British Empire. MBE as awarded in 1918 Close up of an MBE from 1945 showing the "For God and the Empire" Current awards[edit]

Order of the British Empire

Converso. New Christians of Moorish origin were known as moriscos (Galician and Portuguese: mourisco).


The term morisco may also refer to Crypto-Muslims, i.e. those who secretly continued to practice Islam. New Christians of Jewish origin were referred to as marranos. The term marrano may also refer to Crypto-Jews, i.e. those who secretly continued to practice Judaism. Description[edit] Conversos were subject to suspicion and harassment from both the community they were leaving and that which they were joining. The conversos did not enjoy legal equality. While pure blood (so-called limpieza de sangre) would come to be placed at a premium, particularly among the nobility, in a 15th-century defense of conversos, Bishop Lope de Barrientos would list what Roth calls "a veritable 'Who's Who' of Spanish nobility" as having converso members or being of converso descent. See also[edit] Garrison. "Arrival of the dean fleet", showing the garrison of Malta in 1565 and the Ottoman invasion force.


Humorism. The four humors Humorism, or humoralism, is a now discredited theory of the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids known as humors (UK: humours) in a person directly influences their temperament and health.


From Hippocrates onward, the humoral theory was adopted by Greek, Roman and Persian physicians, and became the most commonly held view of the human body among European physicians until the advent of modern medical research in the nineteenth century. The four humors of Hippocratic medicine are black bile (Gk. melan chole), yellow bile (Gk. chole), phlegm (Gk. phlegma), and blood (Gk. haima), and each corresponds to one of the traditional four temperaments. A humor is also referred to as a cambium (pl. cambia or cambiums).[1] Four humors[edit] Paired qualities were associated with each humor and its season. History[edit] Origins[edit] Isabella of Aragon. Isabella of Aragon may refer to: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Andreas Vesalius. Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a Brabantian (in modern-day Belgium) anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).

Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519), the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleanor of Portugal, was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky. He had ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of his father's reign, from c. 1483. Galen. "Claude Galien". Lithograph by Pierre Roche Vigneron. (Paris: Lith de Gregoire et Deneux, ca. 1865) Being and Nothingness. Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology (French: L'Être et le néant : Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique), sometimes subtitled A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre.[1] Sartre's main purpose is to assert the individual's existence as prior to the individual's essence.

His overriding concern in writing the book was to demonstrate that free will exists.[2] In Sartre's much gloomier account in Being and Nothingness, man is a creature haunted by a vision of "completion", what Sartre calls the ens causa sui, literally "a being that causes itself", which many religions and philosophers identify as God. Born into the material reality of one's body, in a material universe, one finds oneself inserted into being.

Consciousness has the ability to conceptualize possibilities, and to make them appear, or to annihilate them. Phenomenology (philosophy)