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Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī ( c. 1058 – 1111); ( ابو حامد محمد ابن محمد الغزالي ), known as Al-Ghazali or Algazel to the Western medieval world, was a Muslim theologian , jurist , philosopher , and mystic of Persian descent. [ 4 ] Al-Ghazali has sometimes been referred to by historians as the single most influential Muslim after the Islamic prophet Muhammad . [ 5 ] :14-16 Others have cited his movement from science to faith as a detriment to Islamic scientific progress. [ 6 ] Besides his work that successfully changed the course of Islamic philosophy—the early Islamic Neoplatonism developed on the grounds of Hellenistic philosophy , for example, was so successfully refuted by al-Ghazali that it never recovered—he also brought the orthodox Islam of his time in close contact with Sufism .
René Descartes ( French: [ʁəne dekaʁt] ; Latinized : Renatus Cartesius ; adjectival form : "Cartesian"; [ 6 ] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic . He has been dubbed the 'Father of Modern Philosophy', and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, [ 7 ] [ 8 ] which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments.
Pierre de Fermat ( French: [pjɛːʁ dəfɛʁma] ; 17 [ 1 ] August 1601 or 1607/8 [ 2 ] – 12 January 1665) was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse , France , and an amateur mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus , including his technique of adequality . In particular, he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines, which is analogous to that of the differential calculus , then unknown, and his research into number theory . He made notable contributions to analytic geometry , probability , and optics . He is best known for Fermat's Last Theorem , which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of Diophantus ' Arithmetica . [ edit ] Life and work Fermat was born, most probably in November 1607, in Beaumont-de-Lomagne , Tarn-et-Garonne , France; the late 15th century mansion where Fermat was born is now a museum.
N.B: this article contains hyperlinks that are outdated TIMES OF OUR LIVES : second par t / first part BY: Professor M. C. K.
Sir Francis Galton , FRS ( / ˈ f r ɑː n s ɪ s ˈ ɡ ɔː l t ən / ; 16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911), cousin of Douglas Strutt Galton , cousin of Charles Darwin , was an English Victorian polymath : anthropologist , eugenicist , tropical explorer , geographer , inventor , meteorologist , proto- geneticist , psychometrician , and statistician . He was knighted in 1909. Galton produced over 340 papers and books. He also created the statistical concept of correlation and widely promoted regression toward the mean . He was the first to apply statistical methods to the study of human differences and inheritance of intelligence , and introduced the use of questionnaires and surveys for collecting data on human communities, which he needed for genealogical and biographical works and for his anthropometric studies. He was a pioneer in eugenics , coining the term itself and the phrase " nature versus nurture ".
When the British army and navy were forced to evacuate New York and other American cities in November 1783 after their defeat in the War of Independence, no fewer than 75,000 civilians left with them. These were the Loyalists who had supported George III in what had effectively been as much a civil war as a national liberation struggle. Although about one-quarter of all American colonists had decided to stay loyal to the king in 1776, after seven years of struggle only 3 percent of them were willing to go into lifelong exile sooner than live in the nascent American republic.