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Diaspora. Orthography. Unacceptable definition. Chinese. The Chinese writing system is an unique phenomenon in the modern world of alphabet scripts. Instead of a few dozen letters, it has developed thousands of complex signs or "characters" that represent morphemes and words. Even related writing systems such as Japanese and Korean, while sharing many of the same characters, can fully function as purely phonetic scripts.

And while it is not the only living logographic writing system in the modern world, it is the only one serving as the primary writing system for hundreds of millions of people. The first recognizable form of Chinese writing dates from 3,500 years ago, but many argue that its origins lie much deeper in the past. Regardless of its actual age, Chinese has evolved substantially over time yet has retained its ancient core, making it one of the longest continuously used writing system in the world. Origin The common consensus is that writing in China evolved from earlier non-linguistic symbolic systems. The Earliest Chinese Writing. Word order - Chinese Grammar Wiki. Also known as: sentence order, 语序 (yǔxù) and 词序 (cíxù).

You may have heard that word order in Chinese is very similar to that of English, and compared to a language like Japanese, it is. Fairly quickly, though, you'll start to realize that there are quite a few ways that the word order of even relatively simple sentences simply don't match in Chinese and English. The honeymoon is over; you're going to have to work just a little bit to master Chinese word order. The Basic SVO Sentence On this level, Chinese word order very closely matches English word order. This concept shouldn't take long at all to master. Adding extra information to a sentence More details can be added to the basic sentence structure. Placement of time words in a sentence Time words, the WHEN part of a sentence, have a special place in Chinese. Placement of place words in a sentence For some common exceptions to this word order, please see the following section. Exceptions to the normal placement of place words Before 很:

A Gentle Introduction to Chinese Sentence Structure. Is Mandarin Chinese as difficult as everyone says? For beginners whose native language is English, I would say that it is as difficult as everyone says – it’s hard as hell. The challenge lies in the fact that there are so many new things to master: for example, pinyin, pronunciation, a new writing system and a totally different approach to grammar. The way to overcome this complexity is to break it down and to see each piece in isolation. When you do that, it actually becomes much simpler, and even logical. Why Mandarin Chinese Sentence Structure? Chinese sentence structure is a good place to start because: It’s a foundational part of the Chinese language.It’s relatively simple and so helps you build confidence.It helps you understand the essential qualities of Chinese grammar.

Let me elaborate on the last point a bit. The most disorienting part of Chinese grammar is that it feels like driving a car without a steering wheel. 5 Simple Examples of Chinese Sentence Structure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Social Etiquette / Modales Sociales - Learn Spanish with Polly Lingual.


ELI5: Was Grammar invented or is it an innate thing humans know? What Are Past Participles. If it's a regular verb, the past participle is the same as the simple past tense. In other words, it is formed like this: Add "ed" to most verbs: jump > jumpedpaint > painted If a verb of one syllable ends [consonant-vowel-consonant], double the final consonant and add "ed": chat > chattedstop > stopped If the final consonant is w, x or y, don't double it: sew > sewedplay > playedfix > fixed If last syllable of a longer verb is stressed and ends [consonant-vowel-consonant], double the last consonant and add "ed": incur > incurred prefer > preferred If the first syllable of a longer verb is stressed and the verb ends [consonant-vowel-consonant], just add "ed": open > opened enter > entered swallow > swallowed If the verb ends "e", just add "d": thrive > thrived guzzle > guzzled If the verb ends [consonant + "y"], change the "y" to an "i" and add "ed": cry > cried fry > fried If it's an irregular verb, the past participle is formed in all sorts of different ways.

The Present Perfect Simple Tense. The Perfect Tenses The opinion of many native and non-native English speakers is that the perfect tenses are far from being ‘perfect’. They cause headaches for most people. On these pages, we will break the perfect tenses down into short sections that will make them easier to understand. Useful Tip Time Expressions in the Present Perfect Use since with a specific year or a period in the past > since 2002 / since I was a childUse for with a number of years > for twenty yearsUse ever and yet in questions and negatives > Have you ever / hasn’t been yetUse already and never, just between have/has and the verb > has already finished / have just beenUse before, since, for, already, many times, so far, yet at the end of a sentence or questions > Have you been there before?

The present perfect simple tense is used to Describe actions that occurred in the past but are still relevant to the present. Rani has broken her arm. The girls have played tennis at the club since 2005. He has sung that song. The Essential Guide to Speaking Spanish Like a True Mexican. Looking to have a huge head start when you travel to Mexico? Want to impress the locals with your Spanish?

Whether you want to better understand what’s going on around you or show off your language skills, one thing is true: You’ve gotta learn the slang. But let me take a wild guess: Your Spanish teacher never taught you words like “chida” or “chelas” in class, right? Even if you speak Spanish at an intermediate level or above, if you’ve never spent any time in Mexico then you’ve probably never seen those words before.

In fact, even if you’ve got a handle on the way Argentinians, Chileans or Spaniards speak, the peculiarities of Mexican Spanish slang can leave you feeling in the dark. But that’s why we’re going to give you a brief introduction to the country’s unique version of Spanish—and by the time we’re done, you’ll be able to understand a full conversation between two Mexicans. Some Basic Information on Mexican Spanish Got it? Mexican Spanish Slang About… My Parents? Confused? ¡Qué padre! Direct Commands in Spanish — The Imperative Mood. By Gerald Erichsen Updated April 24, 2016.

The imperative form of verbs, used for giving commands, is one of the more unusual verb forms in Spanish. As a distinctive conjugation, it exists only with tú and vosotros, that is, in the familiar second person. Different conjugations are sometimes used in the affirmative (do something) and negative (don't). And because direct commands sometimes can sound rude or impolite, the imperative form is avoided sometimes in favor of other verb constructions. The imperative form of verbs is fairly easy to learn.

The imperative form is equivalent to the use of the unconjugated verb in English without a subject. continue reading below our video For example, if you're telling someone in English to look, the command is simply "look. " Direct commands for -ar verbs (using hablar, to speak, as an example): singular familiar: habla tú, no hables tú (speak, don't speak)singular formal: hable Ud., no hable Ud. Use of the imperative is fairly straightforward. Gender of Nouns: Part Two. Home / Grammar / Topic Notes: The written lesson is below.Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left. Masculine nouns that end in a consonant often have a corresponding feminine form that ends in -a. el profesor la profesora el doctor la doctora el señor la señora Some nouns that refer to people use the same form for both masculine and feminine.

These nouns indicate gender by the article (el or la). el estudiante la estudiante el pianista la pianista el artista la artista Nouns that end in -sión, -ción, -dad, -tad, -tud, -umbre are feminine. la televisión la decisión la conversación la habitación la ciudad la universidad la dificultad la libertad la actitud la gratitud la certidumbre la muchedumbre Some nouns that end in -a are masculine. el problema el telegrama el programa el mapa el sistema el poema el día el tema el clima el idioma el sofá el planeta Many nouns that end in -ma are masculine.

El telegrama el programa el problema el sistema el poema el idioma el clima el tema la mano la radio. Gender of Nouns. Home / Grammar / Gender of Nouns Part I Notes: The written lesson is below.Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left. A noun is a word used to denote a person, place, thing, or idea. Person: John, girl, dentistPlace: garden, university, VenezuelaThing: book, car, tomatoIdea: liberty, despair, intelligence In Spanish, all nouns are either masculine or feminine. The idea that nouns have gender seems perfectly natural when the noun stands for a living creature. This is because in English, living creatures often have different names, depending upon whether they are male or female. The following Spanish nouns all denote living creatures. el gato male cat la gata female cat el perro male dog la perra female dog el chico boy la chica girl el abuelo grandfather la abuela grandmother How are all of these masculine nouns alike?

El gato el perro el chico el abuelo Hint: look at both the beginning and the ending of each line. How are all of these feminine nouns alike? La gata la perra la chica la abuela Take a guess. Learn Spanish. The Essential Scots Dictionary: Scots-English, English-Scots - Iseabail Macleod, Pauline Cairns. To exaggerate and overstate - synonyms and related words. How language can affect the way we think. Keith Chen (TED Talk: Could your language affect your ability to save money?)

Might be an economist, but he wants to talk about language. For instance, he points out, in Chinese, saying “this is my uncle” is not as straightforward as you might think. In Chinese, you have no choice but to encode more information about said uncle. The language requires that you denote the side the uncle is on, whether he’s related by marriage or birth and, if it’s your father’s brother, whether he’s older or younger. “All of this information is obligatory. This got Chen wondering: Is there a connection between language and how we think and behave?

While “futured languages,” like English, distinguish between the past, present and future, “futureless languages” like Chinese use the same phrasing to describe the events of yesterday, today and tomorrow. But that’s only the beginning. Featured illustration via iStock. How ampersand came from a misunderstanding.

Johnson & Johnson, Barnes & Noble, Dolce & Gabbana: the ampersand today is used primarily in business names, but that small character was once the 27th part of the alphabet. Where did it come from though? The origin of its name is almost as bizarre as the name itself. The shape of the character (&) predates the word ampersand by more than 1,500 years. In the first century, Roman scribes wrote in cursive, so when they wrote the Latin word et which means “and” they linked the e and t.

Over time the combined letters came to signify the word “and” in English as well. The word “ampersand” came many years later when “&” was actually part of the English alphabet. (The ampersand is also used in an unusual configuration where it appears as “&c” and means etc. The ampersand isn’t the only former member of the alphabet. Are there other symbols or letters you would like to learn about? Word Fact: What Is the Difference Between “Discreet” and “Discrete”? This is another pair of homophones (words that sound alike but are different in meaning, spelling, or both) that can be very confusing.

Discreet implies the showing of reserve and prudence in one’s behavior or speech. Discrete means something quite different: “distinct, separate, unrelated.” Both words derive from the same Latin word discretus meaning “separated.” Until the 1700s, these words were each spelled many different ways including discrete, discreet, dyscrete, discreete, etc. Eventually discrete and discreet came to be differentiated in spelling as well as in meaning. Here are a few useful examples that exemplify their differences: “They balked when the company hiked its price a few bucks a month, and they absolutely howled when Netflix tried to separate DVD rentals and online streaming into two discrete services.” “The beans, too, are not the usual congealing muddle, but discrete drops of heirloom yellow-eyes, scented with coriander.”

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