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Lebanon Accord - Publication about Conflict, Peace and Resilience. What accounts for the vulnerability of Lebanon’s politics?

Lebanon Accord - Publication about Conflict, Peace and Resilience

The state is weak relative to society. The state is also soft: its boundaries are permeable to foreign influenceMarie-Joelle Zahar, Accord 24 special adviser Lebanon is not a post-conflict society. A fundamentally different approach is needed to transform precarious stability in Lebanon into durable peace. Repeated outbreaks of political violence since the 1989 Taif Peace Accord show that Lebanon’s model of power sharing and liberal economic growth, while widely praised, has in reality failed to deliver a noticeable peace dividend. Lebanon’s collective amnesia has been fostered by political elites who played a role in the civil war and have refused public debates that could implicate themSune Haugbølle, Accord 24 special adviser Peace deficit for the Lebanese is threefold: social, governmental and regional-international. The Irresistible Magazine by Al Rifai.

Oh The 60’s, it was a time when our capital was a vibrant tourist destination or as our parents would say, the world was younger!

The Irresistible Magazine by Al Rifai

Beirut had a vibrant and intellectual scene that earned it it’s legendary status of glamour and elegance: the Paris of the Middle East. It was the era that attracted the world’s jet set to this tiny middle eastern country. Let’s go back in time and visit the lebanese golden age, one picture at a time. A Preventable Massacre. ON the night of Sept. 16, 1982, the Israeli military allowed a right-wing Lebanese militia to enter two refugee camps in Beirut.

A Preventable Massacre

In the ensuing three-day rampage, the militia, linked to the Maronite Christian Phalange Party, raped, killed and dismembered at least 800 civilians, while Israeli flares illuminated the camps’ narrow and darkened alleyways. Nearly all of the dead were women, children and elderly men. Thirty years later, the massacre at the Sabra and Shatila camps is remembered as a notorious chapter in modern Middle Eastern history, clouding the tortured relationships among , the United States, and the Palestinians.

In 1983, an Israeli investigative commission concluded that Israeli leaders were “indirectly responsible” for the killings and that , then the defense minister and later prime minister, bore “personal responsibility” for failing to prevent them. Declassified Documents Shed Light on a 1982 Massacre - Interactive Feature. Noam Chomsky: Sabra & Shatila Massacre That Forced Sharon's Ouster Recalls Worst of Jewish Pogroms. SABRA AND SHATILA MASSACRE.

Tall El Zaatar Revisited 2. Tall El Zaatar Revisited 1. Al Jazeera World - A Lesson in history. Lebanon's women warriors. Lebanon 1982 - Part 3 of 3. Lebanon 1982 - Part 2 of 3. Lebanon 1982 - Part 1 of 3. A lesson in history. Filmmaker: Hady Zaccak A lesson in history reveals how the absence of a common history textbook in Lebanese schools highlights the lack of consensus between Lebanon's religious communities over interpreting their past - and their future.

A lesson in history

In 1989 Lebanese parliamentarians met in Saudi Arabia to end the Lebanese Civil War, which had been raging since 1975. One aspect of the Taif Peace Accord they signed dealt with education. The politicians agreed that civic education should be uniform across the country in order to promote national accord and that a common history textbook should be created. After three years of work, historians presented a curriculum they considered to be suitable for Lebanese of all backgrounds. The book was published but its distribution to schools was suspended following political disagreement over its content. Now, two decades after the civil war ended, the state still allows Lebanese schools the freedom to choose their own history textbooks. 'Nobody is objective'

I’ve Got the Power: Mapping Connections Between Lebanon’s Banking Sector and the Ruling Class. The famine of Mount Lebanon during WW1 - BBC News. Lebanon in 76 (photos by Robert C.) - Album on Imgur. 2007-02-01_-_web_version_understanding_lebanon_today.pdf. Beirut Photographer - Witness. Filmmakers: George Azar and Mariam Shahin In 1981, George Azar, a Lebanese-American, crossed the Syrian border into Lebanon.

Beirut Photographer - Witness

He carried an inexpensive camera, less than $100 and a desire to change the way the Arab world was portrayed by the US media. He began taking photographs. But within a few months Israel attacked Lebanon and war broke out. Legacy of US' 1958 Lebanon invasion - Features. Beirut, Lebanon - As US Marines spilled from landing craft onto the beach south of Beirut girding themselves for resistance, it was not gunfire that they confronted - but locals waving and cheering them on.

Legacy of US' 1958 Lebanon invasion - Features

Bikini-clad sunbathers rose eagerly to their feet, villagers arrived on horseback, and workmen downed tools and ran to the sun-beaten shore 10 kilometres from the Lebanese capital. If the unlikely scene 55 years ago on July 15 marking Washington's military debut in the Middle East during Lebanon's first civil war could have been from a movie, its implications would be far more serious. "This was the first overt US military intervention in the region," said Maurice Labelle, a visiting history scholar at the University of Saskatchewan.

"It served as evidence that Washington was prepared, willing and able to intervene at its discretion in the Middle East, regardless of local and regional popular opinion. Cold War atmosphere 'Overreaction'