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Søren Aabye Kierkegaard ( / ˈ s ɔr ən ˈ k ɪər k ə ɡ ɑr d / or / ˈ k ɪər k ə ɡ ɔr / ; Danish: [ˈsɶːɐn ˈkiɐ̯ɡəɡɒːˀ] ( listen ) ) (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher , theologian , poet , social critic , and religious author. He wrote critical texts on organized religion , Christendom , morality, ethics, psychology and philosophy of religion , displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and parables.
Hubris ( pron.: / ˈ h juː b r ɪ s / ), also hybris , from ancient Greek ὕβρις , means extreme pride or arrogance . Hubris often indicates a loss of contact with reality and an overestimation of one's own competence or capabilities, especially when the person exhibiting it is in a position of power. The adjectival form of the noun hubris is "hubristic". [ edit ] Ancient Greek origin In ancient Greek, hubris referred to actions that shamed and humiliated the victim for the pleasure or gratification of the abuser . [ 1 ] The term had a strong sexual connotation, and the shame reflected on the perpetrator as well. [ 2 ]
In metaphysics , a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities. In other words, universals are repeatable or recurrent entities that can be instantiated or exemplified by many particular things. [ 1 ] For example, suppose there are two chairs in a room, each of which is green. These two chairs both share the quality of "being a chair," as well as greenness or the quality of being green. Metaphysicians call this quality that they share a "universal." There are three major kinds of qualities or characteristics: types or kinds (e.g. mammal), properties (e.g. short, strong), and relations (e.g. father of, next to). These are all different types of universal. [ 2 ]
Martin Heidegger ( German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪdɛɡɐ] ; September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher known for his existential and phenomenological explorations of the "question of Being ". [ 4 ] His best known book, Being and Time , is considered one of the most important philosophical works of the 20th century. [ 5 ] In it and later works, Heidegger maintained that our way of questioning defines our nature. But philosophy, Western Civilization's chief way of questioning, had in the process of philosophizing lost sight of the being it sought. Finding ourselves "always already" fallen in a world of presuppositions, we lose touch with what being was before its truth became "muddled". [ 6 ] As a solution to this condition, Heidegger advocated a return to the practical being in the world, allowing it to reveal, or "unconceal" itself as concealment. [ 7 ]
Transcendentalism was a philosophical movement that was developed in the 1830s and 1840s in the Eastern region of the United States as a protest to the general state of culture and society, and in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard University and the doctrine of the Unitarian church taught at Harvard Divinity School . Among the transcendentalists' core beliefs was the inherent goodness of both people and nature. Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual. They had faith that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent.
The birthplace of Hegel in Stuttgart , which now houses The Hegel Museum Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( German: [ˈɡeɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl] ; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher , and a major figure in German Idealism . His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism . Hegel developed a comprehensive philosophical framework, or "system", of Absolute idealism to account in an integrated and developmental way for the relation of mind and nature , the subject and object of knowledge , psychology , the state , history , art , religion , and philosophy. In particular, he developed the concept that mind or spirit manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united , without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other.
Historicism is a mode of thinking that assigns a central and basic significance to a specific context, such as historical period, geographical place and local culture. As such it is in contrast to individualist theories of knowledges such as empiricism and rationalism , which neglect the role of traditions. Historicism therefore tends to be hermeneutical , because it places great importance on cautious, rigorous and contextualized interpretation of information, and/or relativist , because it rejects notions of universal, fundamental and immutable interpretations. [ 1 ] The term has developed different and divergent, though loosely related, meanings. Elements of historicism appear in the writings of Italian philosopher G. B.
In physics , spacetime (also space–time , space time or space–time continuum ) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single continuum . Spacetime is usually interpreted with space as existing in three dimensions and time playing the role of a fourth dimension that is of a different sort from the spatial dimensions. From a Euclidean space perspective, the universe has three dimensions of space and one of time.
Determinism is a metaphysical philosophical position stating that for everything that happens there are conditions such that, given those conditions, nothing else could happen. "There are many determinisms, depending upon what pre-conditions are considered to be determinative of an event." [ 1 ] Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse motives and considerations, some of which overlap. Some forms of determinism can be tested empirically with ideas stemming from physics and the philosophy of physics . The opposite of determinism is some kind of indeterminism (otherwise called nondeterminism ).
In philosophy , the philosophy of physics studies the fundamental philosophical questions underlying modern physics , the study of matter and energy and how they interact . The philosophy of physics begins by reflecting on the basic metaphysical and epistemological questions posed by physics: causality , determinism , and the nature of physical law . It then turns to questions raised by important topics in contemporary physics: Centuries ago, the study of causality, and of the fundamental nature of space, time, matter, and the universe were part of metaphysics. Today the philosophy of physics is essentially a part of the philosophy of science . Physicists utilize the scientific method to delineate the universals and constants governing physical phenomena, and the philosophy of physics reflects on the results of this empirical research.
Zeno of Citium Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. The Stoics taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a sage , or person of "moral and intellectual perfection," would not suffer such emotions. [ 1 ] Stoics were concerned with the active relationship between cosmic determinism and human freedom , and the belief that it is virtuous to maintain a will (called prohairesis ) that is in accord with nature.
German philosophy , here taken to mean either (1) philosophy in the German language or (2) philosophy by Germans, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Leibniz through Kant , Hegel , Schopenhauer , Marx , Nietzsche , Heidegger and Wittgenstein to contemporary philosophers. Søren Kierkegaard (a Danish philosopher ) is frequently included in surveys of German (or Germanic) philosophy due to his extensive engagement with German thinkers. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ edit ] 17th century [ edit ] Leibniz Leibniz
Libertarianism is one of the main philosophical positions related to the problems of free will and determinism , which are part of the larger domain of metaphysics . [ 1 ] In particular, libertarianism, which is an incompatibilist position, [ 2 ] [ 3 ] argues that free will is logically incompatible with a deterministic universe and that agents have free will, and that, therefore, determinism is false. [ 4 ] Although compatibilism , the view that determinism and free will are logically compatible, is the most popular position on free will amongst professional philosophers, [ 5 ] metaphysical libertarianism is discussed, though not necessarily endorsed, by several philosophers, such as Peter van Inwagen , Robert Kane , Robert Nozick , [ 6 ] Carl Ginet , Hugh McCann , Harry Frankfurt , E.J. Lowe , Alfred Mele , Roderick Chisholm , Daniel Dennett , [ 7 ] Timothy O'Connor , Derk Pereboom , and Galen Strawson . [ 8 ]
Temporal paradox (also known as time paradox and time travel paradox ) is a theoretical paradoxical situation that happens because of time travel . A time traveler goes to the past, and does something that would prevent him from time travel in the first place. If he does not go back in time, he does not do anything that would prevent his traveling to the past, so time travel would be possible for him.
The ultimate fate of the universe is a topic in physical cosmology . Many possible fates are predicted by rival scientific theories, including futures of both finite and infinite duration. Once the notion that the universe started with a rapid inflation nicknamed the Big Bang became accepted by the majority of scientists, [ 1 ] the ultimate fate of the universe became a valid cosmological question, one depending upon the physical properties of the mass/energy in the universe, its average density, and the rate of expansion. There's a growing consensus among cosmologists that the universe will continue to expand forever. [ 2 ]