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Jacques Derrida ( pron.: / ʒ ɑː k ˈ d ɛr ɨ d ə / ; French: [ʒak dɛʁida] ; July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French philosopher, born in French Algeria . He developed a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction . His work was labeled as post-structuralism and associated with postmodern philosophy . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] He published more than 40 books, together with essays and public presentations.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre ( / ˈ s ɑr t r ə / ; French: [saʁtʁ] ; 21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, political activist, biographer, and literary critic . He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism, and one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism . His work has also influenced sociology , critical theory , post-colonial theory , and literary studies , and continues to influence these disciplines.
Johann Adam Weishaupt (6 February 1748 – 18 November 1830 [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] ) was a German philosopher and founder of the Order of Illuminati , a secret society with origins in Bavaria . [ edit ] Early life Adam Weishaupt was born on 6 February 1748 in Ingolstadt [ 1 ] [ 5 ] in the Electorate of Bavaria . Weishaupt's father Johann Georg Weishaupt (1717–1753) died [ 5 ] when Adam was five years old.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl ( German: [ˈhʊsɐl] ; April 8, 1859 – April 26, 1938) was a philosopher and mathematician and the founder of the 20th century philosophical school of phenomenology . He broke with the positivist orientation of the science and philosophy of his day, yet he elaborated critiques of historicism and of psychologism in logic. Not limited to empiricism , but believing that experience is the source of all knowledge, he worked on a method of phenomenological reduction by which a subject may come to know directly an essence.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche ( / ˈ n iː tʃ ə / [ 42 ] or / ˈ n i tʃ i / ; [ 43 ] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːt͡sʃə] ; October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) was a German philosopher , poet , composer , cultural critic , and classical philologist . He wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy, and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor , irony , and aphorism . Nietzsche's key ideas include the " death of God ," the Übermensch , the eternal recurrence , the Apollonian and Dionysian dichotomy, perspectivism , and the will to power . Central to his philosophy is the idea of "life-affirmation", which involves questioning of all doctrines that drain life's expansive energies, however socially prevalent those views might be. [ 44 ] His influence remains substantial within philosophy, notably in existentialism , post-modernism , and post-structuralism , as well as outside it.
Martin Heidegger ( German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪdɛɡɐ] ; September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher known for his existential and phenomenological explorations of the "question of Being ". [ 4 ] His best known book, Being and Time , is considered one of the most important philosophical works of the 20th century. [ 5 ] In it and later works, Heidegger maintained that our way of questioning defines our nature. But philosophy, Western Civilization's chief way of questioning, had in the process of philosophizing lost sight of the being it sought. Finding ourselves "always already" fallen in a world of presuppositions, we lose touch with what being was before its truth became "muddled". [ 6 ] As a solution to this condition, Heidegger advocated a return to the practical being in the world, allowing it to reveal, or "unconceal" itself as concealment. [ 7 ]