Visual language. A visual language is a system of communication using visual elements.
Speech as a means of communication cannot strictly be separated from the whole of human communicative activity that includes the visual and the term 'language' in relation to vision is an extension of its use to describe the perception, comprehension and production of visible signs. Overview An image that dramatizes and communicates an idea presupposes the use of a visual language. Just as people can 'verbalize' their thinking, they can 'visualize' it. A diagram, a map, and a painting are all examples of uses of visual language. The elements in an image represent concepts in a spatial context, rather than the linear form used for words. Visual Language Visual units in the form of lines and marks are constructed into meaningful shapes and structures or signs. Iconography.
Iconography is the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
The word iconography comes from the Greek εἰκών ("image") and γράφειν ("to write"). A secondary meaning (based on a non-standard translation of the Greek and Russian equivalent terms) is the production of religious images, called icons, in the Byzantine and Orthodox Christian tradition; that is covered at Icon. Symbolism (arts) Distinct from, but related to, the style of literature, symbolism of art is related to the gothic component of Romanticism.
The term "symbolism" is derived from the word "symbol" which derives from the Latin symbolum, a symbol of faith, and symbolus, a sign of recognition, in turn from classical Greek συμβόλον symbolon, an object cut in half constituting a sign of recognition when the carriers were able to reassemble the two halves. In ancient Greece, the symbolon, was a shard of pottery which was inscribed and then broken into two pieces which were given to the ambassadors from two allied city states as a record of the alliance. The symbolist poets have a more complex relationship with Parnassianism, a French literary style that immediately preceded it.
Symbology dictionary. Ancient Symbols, meanings of symbols from Ancient Egyptian, Celtic, Greek, etc. Psychological manipulation. Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the perception or behavior of others through underhanded, deceptive, or even abusive tactics. By advancing the interests of the manipulator, often at another's expense, such methods could be considered exploitative, abusive, devious, and deceptive.
Social influence is not necessarily negative. For example, doctors can try to persuade patients to change unhealthy habits. Social influence is generally perceived to be harmless when it respects the right of the influenced to accept or reject and is not unduly coercive. Depending on the context and motivations, social influence may constitute underhanded manipulation. §Requirements for successful manipulation According to psychology author George K. Consequently, the manipulation is likely to be accomplished through covert aggressive (relational aggressive or passive aggressive) means. §How manipulators control their victims Marketing dictionary. Advertising research. Advertising research is a specialized form of marketing research conducted to improve the efficiency of advertising.
History 1879 - N. W. Ayer conducts custom research in an attempt to win the advertising business of Nichols-Shepard Co., a manufacturer of agricultural machinery. 1895 - Harlow Gale of the University of Minnesota mails questionnaires to gather opinions about advertising from the public. 1900s - George B. 1910s - 1911 can be considered the year marketing research becomes an industry. 1920s - In 1922, Dr. 1930s - In 1936, Dr. 1940s - Post World War II, the U.S. sees a large increase in the number of market research companies. 1950s - Market researchers focus on improving methods and measures. 1960s - Qualitative focus groups gain in popularity. In addition, some advertisers call for more rigorous measurement of the in-market effectiveness of advertising in order to provide better accountability for the large amounts being spent on advertising.
See also Mind control. Mind control (also known as brainwashing, coercive persuasion, thought control, or thought reform) is an indoctrination process which results in "an impairment of autonomy, an inability to think independently, and a disruption of beliefs and affiliations.
In this context, brainwashing refers to the involuntary reeducation of basic beliefs and values" The term has been applied to any tactic, psychological or otherwise, which can be seen as subverting an individual's sense of control over their own thinking, behavior, emotions or decision making. Theories of brainwashing and of mind control were originally developed to explain how totalitarian regimes appeared to succeed systematically in indoctrinating prisoners of war through propaganda and torture techniques.
These theories were later expanded and modified by psychologists including Jean-Marie Abgrall and Margaret Singer to explain a wider range of phenomena, especially conversions to new religious movements (NRMs). Subliminal stimuli. Subliminal stimuli (/sʌbˈlɪmɨnəl/; literally "below threshold"), contrary to supraliminal stimuli or "above threshold", are any sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception. A recent review of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies shows that subliminal stimuli activate specific regions of the brain despite participants being unaware. Visual stimuli may be quickly flashed before an individual can process them, or flashed and then masked, thereby interrupting the processing.
Audio stimuli may be played below audible volumes or masked by other stimuli. Effectiveness The effectiveness in subliminal messaging has been demonstrated to prime individual responses and stimulate mild emotional activity. Applications, however, often base themselves on the persuasiveness of the message. Method Objective threshold