ch2 Ancient to Modern World Y8 650-1750
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La guerre de la Ligue d’Augsbourg , également appelée guerre de Neuf Ans , eut lieu de 1688 à 1697.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was king of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was lord , and later king , of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty , succeeding his father, Henry VII .
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. Her brutal persecution of Protestants caused her opponents to give her the sobriquet " Bloody Mary ".
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called " The Virgin Queen ", " Gloriana " or " Good Queen Bess ", Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty . The daughter of Henry VIII , she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn , was executed two and a half years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her half-brother, Edward VI , bequeathed the crown to Lady Jane Grey , cutting his two half-sisters, Elizabeth and the Catholic Mary , out of the succession in spite of statute law to the contrary . His will was set aside, Mary became queen, and Lady Jane Grey was executed. In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.
Philip II of Spain ( Spanish : Felipe II ; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Spain (as Philip II in Castille and Philip I in Aragon ) and Portugal as Philip I ( Portuguese : Filipe I ). During his marriage to Queen Mary I , he was King of England and Ireland and pretender to the kingdom of France . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] As heir to the Duchy of Burgundy , he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands . Known in Spanish as "Philip the Prudent" ( Felipe el Prudente ), his empire included territories in every continent then known to Europeans and during his reign Spain was the foremost Western European power.
The Holy Roman Empire ( Latin : Imperium Romanum Sacrum , German : Heiliges Römisches Reich , Italian : Sacro Romano Impero , Czech : Svatá říše římská , Slovene : Sveto rimsko cesarstvo ) was a varying complex of lands [ 1 ] that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe . [ 2 ] It grew out of East Francia , one of the primary divisions of the Frankish Empire . Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period , when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes. In its last centuries, it had become quite close to a union of territories.
Charles V ( Spanish : Carlos I ; Dutch : Karel V ; German : Karl V. ; Italian : Carlo V ; French : Charles Quint ; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I , of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556. Charles was the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna the Mad . His grandmother was Isabella I of Castile . As the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties—the House of Habsburg of the Habsburg Monarchy ; the House of Valois-Burgundy of the Burgundian Netherlands ; and the House of Trastámara of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon —he ruled over extensive domains in Central, Western, and Southern Europe; and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia.
Introduction The history of the Holy Roman Empire, as Germany was then known, differed quite markedly from France and England.
The Holy Roman Empire was potentially Europe’s greatest state.
The Ottoman Empire ( Ottoman Turkish : دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i ʿAliyye-yi ʿO s mâniyye [ 4 ] Modern Turkish : Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ), also historically referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey , was a state founded by Turkish tribes under Osman Bey in north-western Anatolia in 1299. [ 5 ] With the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453, the Ottoman state became an empire. [ citation needed ] The conquest of Constantinople was a pivotal event in the evolution of Turkish statehood , since the victory of 1453 cemented its Eurasian nature, which remains one of the essential characteristics of Modern Turkey . The empire reached its peak at 1590, covering parts of Asia, Europe and Africa. The reign of the long-lived Ottoman dynasty lasted for 623 years, from 27 July 1299 [ 6 ] [ dn 2 ] to 1 November 1922, when the monarchy in Turkey was abolished. [ 7 ]
The Franco-Ottoman alliance , also Franco-Turkish alliance , was an alliance established in 1536 between the king of France Francis I and the Turkish sultan of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent .
1405 to 1798 This chapter covers the following topics: Mohammed the Conqueror