Micro-organisms affect every aspect of life on Earth.
General This group of organisms includes several that cause primary infections of the human gastrointestinal tract. Thus, they are referred to as enterics (regardless of whether they cause gut disorders). Bacteria that affect the gastrointestinal tract include certain strains of E. coli and Salmonella , all 4 species of Shigella , and Yersinia entercolitica .
MPN Calculator Updated 29-April-2004 Standard MPN tables are frequently limited to 3 or 4 defined dilutions and 3, 5, or 10 replicate samples per dilution. The MPN Calculator estimates MPN values for up to 6 different dilutions, dilutions can be none standard amounts, the replicates per dilution can vary.. In addition, the 3-tube 3-decimal dilution series frequently used in food microbiology and standard water microbiology dilutions are offered as preprogrammed selections. Why use an MPN calculator?
This section contains a range of experiments that you can try out in the comfort of your own kitchen or school classroom. They all use easy to get hold of items, but some can be a bit dangerous if you don't take care. Please get a responsible person to help if you're unsure and be careful with anything involving fire. Explanations to why the experiments work are included on all the pages but I haven't gone into detail about controls, variables and experimental plans. If you want to just have a bit of fun then you can use the experiments as they are. But if you are doing them at school or for a science fair project, you will need to have a read of the section below so that you think about things like controls and variables before you carry out the experiment.
Taxonomy of Bacteria and Archaea
Hexavalent chromium reduction and 16S rDNA identification of bacteria isolated from a Cr (VI) contaminated siteFour strains used in this study were originally isolated by Mr. A.P. Das sukind chromite mines, jajpur, India.
Overview of membrane associated uptake, efflux, reduction and oxidation of metal ions. The complexity of several examples of some families (such as CopA/B and CadA P-type ATPases and three component chemiosmotic RND systems (CzcCBA and SilCBA) preclude aThree patterns are found for cadmium efflux (the next toxic cation to be considered) and these are (with the names of examples) CzcD, a single membrane polypeptide chemiosmotic efflux pump, CzcCBA, a three polypeptide chemiosmotic complex with CzcA (a large inner membrane protein), CzcC (a smaller outer membrane protein) and CzcB (a periplasmic coupling protein that connects CzcA and CzcB and forms a continuous channel from the cytoplasm to the outside of the cell (Figs. 1 , 6 b) [ 80 , 81 ], and CadA, a large single polypeptide P-type ATPase (Fig. 6 a). <p style="text-align:right;color:#A8A8A8"></p>
A diversity index is a quantitative measure that reflects how many different types (such as species ) there are in a dataset, and simultaneously takes into account how evenly the basic entities (such as individuals) are distributed among those types. The value of a diversity index increases both when the number of types increases and when evenness increases. For a given number of types, the value of a diversity index is maximized when all types are equally abundant. When diversity indices are used in ecology , the types of interest are usually species, but they can also be other categories, such as genera , families , functional types or haplotypes . The entities of interest are usually individual plants or animals, and the measure of abundance can be, for example, number of individuals, biomass or coverage. In demography , the entities of interest can be people, and the types of interest various demographic groups.
Thie site is a companion to the textbook Microbial Life, Second Edition by James T. Staley, Robert P. Gunsalus, Stephen Lory, and Jerome J. Perry, published by Sinauer Associates