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Henry Stapp (1928 - ) is an American physicist, known for his work in quantum mechanics . [ 1 ] [ edit ] Biography Stapp received his PhD in particle physics at the University of California, Berkeley , under the supervision of Nobel Laureates Emilio Segrè and Owen Chamberlain .
Evolution is the change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations . Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation , including species , individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins . [ 1 ] Life on Earth evolved from a universal common ancestor approximately 3.8 billion years ago. Repeated speciation and the divergence of life can be inferred from shared sets of biochemical and morphological traits, or by shared DNA sequences . [ 2 ] These homologous traits and sequences are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, and can be used to reconstruct evolutionary histories , using both existing species and the fossil record . Existing patterns of biodiversity have been shaped both by speciation and by extinction . [ 3 ]
Transhumanism , abbreviated as H+ or h+ , is an international intellectual and cultural movement that affirms the possibility and desirability of fundamentally transforming the human condition by developing and making widely available technologies to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. [ 1 ] Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emerging technologies that could overcome fundamental human limitations, as well as study the ethical matters involved in developing and using such technologies. They predict that human beings may eventually be able to transform themselves into beings with such greatly expanded abilities as to merit the label " posthuman ". [ 1 ]
This is a partial list of social and cultural phenomena specific to the Internet , such as popular themes, catchphrases , images, viral videos , jokes, and more. When such fads and sensations occur online, they tend to grow rapidly and become more widespread because the instant communication facilitates word of mouth . Advertising Blendtec – The blender product, claimed by its creator Tom Dickson to be the most powerful blender, is featured in a series of YouTube videos, " Will It Blend? " where numerous food and non-food items are used within the blender. [ 1 ] Cooks Source infringement controversy – An advertising-supported publication's dismissive response to copyright infringement complaint causes online backlash. [ 2 ] Elf Yourself (2006) and its related Scrooge Yourself (2007) are both interactive websites created by Jason Zada and Evolution Bureau for OfficeMax 's holiday season advertising campaign .
Technicians prepare a patient for cryopreservation Cryonics (from Greek κρύος kryos- meaning icy cold ) is the low-temperature preservation of humans and animals who cannot be sustained by contemporary medicine, with the hope that healing and resuscitation may be possible in the future. Cryonics is not cryogenics . [ 1 ] Cryopreservation of people or large animals is not reversible with current technology. The stated rationale for cryonics is that people who are considered dead by current legal or medical definitions may not necessarily be dead according to the more stringent information-theoretic definition of death . [ 2 ] It is proposed that cryopreserved people might someday be recovered by using highly advanced future technology. [ 3 ]
Antiscience is a position that rejects science and the scientific method . [ 1 ] People holding antiscientific views do not accept that science is an objective method, as it purports to be, or that it generates universal knowledge. They also contend that scientific reductionism in particular is an inherently limited means to reach understanding of the complex world we live in. Antiscience proponents also criticize what they perceive as the unquestioned privilege, power and influence science seems to wield in society, industry and politics; they object to what they regard as an arrogant or closed-minded attitude amongst scientists. [ 2 ] [ not in citation given ] [ edit ] History In the beginnings of the scientific revolution , scientists such as Robert Boyle found themselves in conflict with those such as Thomas Hobbes , who were skeptical of whether science was a satisfactory way to obtain genuine knowledge about the world. Hobbes' stance is sometimes regarded as an antiscience position:
A self-serving bias , sometimes called a self-serving attributional bias , refers to individuals attributing their successes to internal or personal factors but attributing their failures to external or situational factors. [ 1 ] This bias is a mechanism for individuals to protect or enhance their own self-esteem . [ 2 ] For example, a student who attributes a good grade on an exam to his or her own intelligence and hours of studying but a poor grade to the professor’s poor teaching ability and unfair test questions is exhibiting the self-serving bias.
Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one thing while ignoring other things. Examples include listening carefully to what someone is saying while ignoring other conversations in the room (e.g. the cocktail party problem, Cherry, 1953). Attention can also be split, as when a person drives a car and talks on a cell phone at the same time. Attention is one of the most intensely studied topics within psychology and cognitive neuroscience . Of the many cognitive processes associated with the human mind ( decision-making , memory , emotion , etc), attention is considered the most concrete because it is tied so closely to perception . As such, it is a gateway to the rest of cognition.
For the psychological theory called "naive realism", see naïve realism (psychology) Naïve realism argues we perceive the world directly Naïve realism , also known as direct realism or common sense realism , is a philosophy of mind rooted in a theory of perception that claims that the senses provide us with direct awareness of the external world.
Lateral thinking is solving problems through an indirect and creative approach, using reasoning that is not immediately obvious and involving ideas that may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic . The term was coined in 1967 by Edward de Bono . As taught by de Bono, lateral thinking deliberately distances itself from standard perceptions of creativity as either "vertical" logic (the classic method for problem solving: working out the solution step-by-step from the given data) or "horizontal" imagination (having a thousand ideas but being unconcerned with the detailed implementation of them).
Schema Therapy was developed by Dr. Jeffrey E. Young for use in treatment of personality disorders and chronic Axis I disorders, such as when patients fail to respond or relapse after having been through other therapies (for example, traditional CBT). Schema Therapy is an integrative , twenty first century psychotherapy [ 1 ] synergistically and systematically combining theory and techniques from previously existing therapies, including Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, psychoanalytic object relations, Attachment Theory, and Gestalt therapy (Young, 2003, p. 6). [ edit ] Introduction The main theoretical concepts in Schema Therapy are Early Maladaptive Schemas (or just "schemas"), Coping Styles , Modes , and basic emotional needs .
A meme ( pron.: / ˈ m iː m / ; meem ) [ 1 ] is a term employed in certain theories of culture to refer to "an idea, behavior or style that spreads from person to person within a culture." [ 2 ] A meme acts as a unit for carrying cultural ideas, symbols or practices, which can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals or other imitable phenomena. Supporters of the concept regard memes as cultural analogues to genes in that they self-replicate, mutate and respond to selective pressures . [ 3 ] The word meme is a shortening (modeled on gene ) of mimeme (from Ancient Greek μίμημα Greek pronunciation: [míːmɛːma] mīmēma , "imitated thing", from μιμεῖσθαι mimeisthai , "to imitate", from μῖμος mimos "mime") [ 4 ] and it was coined by the British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins in The Selfish Gene (1976) [ 1 ] [ 5 ] as a concept for discussion of evolutionary principles in explaining the spread of ideas and cultural phenomena.
Sensory defensiveness is a condition defined as having "a tendency to react negatively or with alarm to sensory input which is generally considered harmless or non-irritating" to neurotypical persons. [ 1 ] It is not uncommon for individuals to have a few mild sensory defensive traits. However, when multiple defensive traits impact the person's day-to-day life, that person is considered to be sensory defensive. [ edit ] Symptoms
The holonomic brain theory , originated by psychologist Karl Pribram and initially developed in collaboration with physicist David Bohm , is a model for human cognition that is drastically different from conventionally accepted ideas: Pribram and Bohm posit a model of cognitive function as being guided by a matrix of neurological wave interference patterns situated temporally between holographic Gestalt perception and discrete, affective, quantum vectors derived from reward anticipation potentials. Pribram was originally struck by the similarity of the hologram idea and Bohm's idea of the implicate order in physics, and contacted him for collaboration.