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Related:  Evolution

Mathematical and theoretical biology Mathematical and theoretical biology is an interdisciplinary scientific research field with a range of applications in biology, biotechnology, and medicine.[1] The field may be referred to as mathematical biology or biomathematics to stress the mathematical side, or as theoretical biology to stress the biological side.[2] It includes at least four major subfields: biological mathematical modeling, relational biology/complex systems biology (CSB), bioinformatics and computational biomodeling/biocomputing. Mathematical biology aims at the mathematical representation, treatment and modeling of biological processes, using a variety of applied mathematical techniques and tools. It has both theoretical and practical applications in biological, biomedical and biotechnology research. Importance[edit] Applying mathematics to biology has a long history, but only recently has there been an explosion of interest in the field. Areas of research[edit] Evolutionary biology[edit] Spatial modelling[edit]

Biology History The objects of our research will be the different forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which these phenomena occur, and the causes through which they have been effected. The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology [Biologie] or the doctrine of life [Lebenslehre]. Although modern biology is a relatively recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indian subcontinent, and China. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz (781–869), Al-Dinawari (828–896), who wrote on botany,[8] and Rhazes (865–925) who wrote on anatomy and physiology. Biology began to quickly develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's dramatic improvement of the microscope. Foundations of modern biology Cell theory Main article: Cell theory Evolution Genetics

Family tree Example of a family tree, showing three generations of the Kennedy Family Family tree showing the relationship of each person to the orange person, including cousins and gene share. Family history representations[edit] Genealogical data can be represented in several formats, for example as a pedigree or ancestry chart. Family trees can have many themes. The image of the tree probably originated with one in medieval art of the Tree of Jesse,[1] used to illustrate the Genealogy of Christ in terms of a prophecy of Isaiah (Isaiah 11:1). Fan chart[edit] One technique is a "fan chart", which features a half circle chart with concentric rings: the person of interest is the inner circle, the second circle is divided in two (each side is one parent), the third circle is divided in four, and so forth. Graph theory[edit] The graphs of matrilineal descent ("mother" relationships between women) and patrilineal descent ("father" relationships between men) are trees however. Notable examples[edit]

Evolutionary biology Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the study of the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth. Someone who studies evolutionary biology is known as an evolutionary biologist. Evolutionary biologists study the descent of species, and the origin of new species. Subfields[edit] The study of evolution is the unifying concept in evolutionary biology. History[edit] Evolutionary biology, as an academic discipline in its own right, emerged during the period of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s. Microbiology has recently developed into an evolutionary discipline. Important evolutionary biologists[edit] Many biologists have contributed to our current understanding of evolution. Journals[edit] Current research topics[edit] Current research in evolutionary biology covers diverse topics, as should be expected given the centrality of evolution to understanding biology. References[edit] See also[edit]

Форум журнала «НАУКА И ЖИЗНЬ» Так утверждение и не категорично. Исследуется фундаментальная физика, а она ключ к разгадке всех тайн Вселенной, иначе мы не поймем, возможны ли мультивселенные, что происходило в первые доли секунды большого взрыва, что такое пространство, время, материя ... Вот, вчера сохранила слайд из презентации с этого сайта. Species As a practical matter, species concepts may be used to define species that are then used to measure biodiversity, though whether this is a good measure is disputed, as other measures are possible. History[edit] Classical forms[edit] Fixed species[edit] John Ray believed that species breed true and do not change, even though variations exist. When observers in the Early Modern period began to develop systems of organization for living things, they placed each kind of animal or plant into a context. No surer criterion for determining species has occurred to me than the distinguishing features that perpetuate themselves in propagation from seed. The possibility of change[edit] In 1859, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace provided a compelling account of evolution and the formation of new species. I look at the term species as one arbitrarily given for the sake of convenience to a set of individuals closely resembling each other ... Taxonomy and naming[edit] Common and scientific names[edit]

Evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology (EP) is an approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological traits such as memory, perception, and language from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms, such as the heart, lungs, and immune system, is common in evolutionary biology. The adaptationist approach is steadily increasing as an influence in the general field of psychology.[2][3] Evolutionary psychologists suggest that EP is not simply a subdiscipline of psychology but that evolutionary theory can provide a foundational, metatheoretical framework that integrates the entire field of psychology, in the same way it has for biology.[4][5][6] Scope[edit] Principles[edit] Premises[edit] Evolutionary psychology is founded on several core premises. History[edit] Theoretical foundations[edit]

dinararabbit - Все о снежинках. Странная звёздочка С неба упала, Мне на ладошку легла - И пропала... Почему шестигранник? Все дело в ориентации молекул в кристаллической решетке льда и расположении свободных водородных связей, которое способствует образованию ровных граней. Представьте себе игру в тетрис: установить гладкий кубик на гладкую же поверхность несколько труднее, чем заполнить образовавшуюся в ровной линии брешь. Такие призмы падают с неба при сравнительно небольшой влажности воздуха в самых разных температурных условиях. Рано или поздно на гранях появляются неровности. Как снимать снежинки? Из дневника фотографа: Правильные и красивые снежинки выпадают редко, я наблюдал их всего несколько раз за зиму и ограниченное время. похожи на манную крупу. Я снимал снежинки на балконе, открывал окно и под ним ставил табуретку с какой-нибудь ворсистой поверхностью, например, меховая подкладка для куртки или шарф, на другой поверхности они сразу таят, т.к. А вот такие снежинки можно сделать своими руками: