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Related:  Evolution

Mathematical and theoretical biology Mathematical and theoretical biology is an interdisciplinary scientific research field with a range of applications in biology, biotechnology, and medicine.[1] The field may be referred to as mathematical biology or biomathematics to stress the mathematical side, or as theoretical biology to stress the biological side.[2] It includes at least four major subfields: biological mathematical modeling, relational biology/complex systems biology (CSB), bioinformatics and computational biomodeling/biocomputing. Mathematical biology aims at the mathematical representation, treatment and modeling of biological processes, using a variety of applied mathematical techniques and tools. It has both theoretical and practical applications in biological, biomedical and biotechnology research. Importance[edit] Applying mathematics to biology has a long history, but only recently has there been an explosion of interest in the field. Areas of research[edit] Evolutionary biology[edit] Spatial modelling[edit]

Eternal return Eternal return (also known as "eternal recurrence") is a concept that the universe has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space. The concept is found in Indian philosophy and in ancient Egypt and was subsequently taken up by the Pythagoreans and Stoics. With the decline of antiquity and the spread of Christianity, the concept fell into disuse in the Western world, with the exception of Friedrich Nietzsche, who connected the thought to many of his other concepts, including amor fati. In addition, the philosophical concept of eternal recurrence was addressed by Arthur Schopenhauer. It is a purely physical concept, involving no supernatural reincarnation, but the return of beings in the same bodies. Time is viewed as being not linear but cyclical. Premise[edit] The oscillatory universe model in physics could be provided as an example of how the universe cycles through the same events infinitely. Judaism[edit]

Family tree Example of a family tree, showing three generations of the Kennedy Family Family tree showing the relationship of each person to the orange person, including cousins and gene share. Family history representations[edit] Genealogical data can be represented in several formats, for example as a pedigree or ancestry chart. Family trees can have many themes. The image of the tree probably originated with one in medieval art of the Tree of Jesse,[1] used to illustrate the Genealogy of Christ in terms of a prophecy of Isaiah (Isaiah 11:1). Fan chart[edit] One technique is a "fan chart", which features a half circle chart with concentric rings: the person of interest is the inner circle, the second circle is divided in two (each side is one parent), the third circle is divided in four, and so forth. Graph theory[edit] The graphs of matrilineal descent ("mother" relationships between women) and patrilineal descent ("father" relationships between men) are trees however. Notable examples[edit]

Evolutionary biology Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the study of the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth. Someone who studies evolutionary biology is known as an evolutionary biologist. Evolutionary biologists study the descent of species, and the origin of new species. Subfields[edit] The study of evolution is the unifying concept in evolutionary biology. History[edit] Evolutionary biology, as an academic discipline in its own right, emerged during the period of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s. Microbiology has recently developed into an evolutionary discipline. Important evolutionary biologists[edit] Many biologists have contributed to our current understanding of evolution. Journals[edit] Current research topics[edit] Current research in evolutionary biology covers diverse topics, as should be expected given the centrality of evolution to understanding biology. References[edit] See also[edit]

Universal Darwinism Universal Darwinism (also known as generalized Darwinism, universal selection theory,[1] or Darwinian metaphysics[2][3][4]) refers to a variety of approaches that extend the theory of Darwinism beyond its original domain of biological evolution on Earth. The idea is to formulate a generalized version of the mechanisms of variation, selection and heredity proposed by Charles Darwin, so that they can be applied to explain evolution in a wide variety of other domains, including psychology, economics, culture, medicine, computer science and physics. Basic mechanisms[edit] At the most fundamental level, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution states that organisms evolve and adapt to their environment by an iterative process. After those fit variants are retained, they can again undergo variation, either directly or in their offspring, starting a new round of the iteration. History and development[edit] Starting in the 1950s, Donald T. Examples of universal Darwinist theories[edit] Books[edit]

Species As a practical matter, species concepts may be used to define species that are then used to measure biodiversity, though whether this is a good measure is disputed, as other measures are possible. History[edit] Classical forms[edit] Fixed species[edit] John Ray believed that species breed true and do not change, even though variations exist. When observers in the Early Modern period began to develop systems of organization for living things, they placed each kind of animal or plant into a context. No surer criterion for determining species has occurred to me than the distinguishing features that perpetuate themselves in propagation from seed. The possibility of change[edit] In 1859, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace provided a compelling account of evolution and the formation of new species. I look at the term species as one arbitrarily given for the sake of convenience to a set of individuals closely resembling each other ... Taxonomy and naming[edit] Common and scientific names[edit]

Evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology (EP) is an approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological traits such as memory, perception, and language from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms, such as the heart, lungs, and immune system, is common in evolutionary biology. The adaptationist approach is steadily increasing as an influence in the general field of psychology.[2][3] Evolutionary psychologists suggest that EP is not simply a subdiscipline of psychology but that evolutionary theory can provide a foundational, metatheoretical framework that integrates the entire field of psychology, in the same way it has for biology.[4][5][6] Scope[edit] Principles[edit] Premises[edit] Evolutionary psychology is founded on several core premises. History[edit] Theoretical foundations[edit]

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