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Related:  The Story of Human Language-

Family tree Example of a family tree, showing three generations of the Kennedy Family Family tree showing the relationship of each person to the orange person, including cousins and gene share. Family history representations[edit] Genealogical data can be represented in several formats, for example as a pedigree or ancestry chart. Family trees can have many themes. The image of the tree probably originated with one in medieval art of the Tree of Jesse,[1] used to illustrate the Genealogy of Christ in terms of a prophecy of Isaiah (Isaiah 11:1). Fan chart[edit] One technique is a "fan chart", which features a half circle chart with concentric rings: the person of interest is the inner circle, the second circle is divided in two (each side is one parent), the third circle is divided in four, and so forth. Graph theory[edit] The graphs of matrilineal descent ("mother" relationships between women) and patrilineal descent ("father" relationships between men) are trees however. Notable examples[edit]

Ernst Mayr German-American evolutionary biologist His theory of peripatric speciation (a more precise form of allopatric speciation which he advanced), based on his work on birds, is still considered a leading mode of speciation, and was the theoretical underpinning for the theory of punctuated equilibrium, proposed by Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould. Mayr is sometimes credited with inventing modern philosophy of biology, particularly the part related to evolutionary biology, which he distinguished from physics due to its introduction of (natural) history into science. Biography[edit] Mayr was the second son of Helene Pusinelli and Dr. On 23 March 1923 on the lakes of Moritzburg, the Frauenteich, he spotted what he identified as a red-crested pochard. After Mayr was appointed at the American Museum of Natural History, he influenced American ornithological research by mentoring young birdwatchers. Mayr organized a monthly seminar under the auspices of the Linnean Society of New York. Books[edit]

474-controversy-evolution-works The theory of evolution by natural selection, first formulated in Darwin's book "On the Origin of Species" in 1859, is the process by which organisms change over time as a result of changes in heritable physical or behavioral traits. Changes that allow an organism to better adapt to its environment will help it survive and have more offspring. Evolution by natural selection is one of the best substantiated theories in the history of science, supported by evidence from a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including paleontology, geology, genetics and developmental biology. The theory has two main points, said Brian Richmond, curator of human origins at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. "All life on Earth is connected and related to each other," and this diversity of life is a product of "modifications of populations by natural selection, where some traits were favored in and environment over others," he said. Origin of whales Natural selection Modern understanding

Species Basic unit of taxonomic classification The total number of species is estimated to be between 8 and 8.7 million.[1][2] However the vast majority of them are not studied or documented and it may take over 1000 years to fully catalogue them all.[3] Definition[edit] Typological or morphological species[edit] A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals conform to certain fixed properties (a type), so that even pre-literate people often recognise the same taxon as do modern taxonomists.[10][11] The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens (such as longer or shorter tails) would differentiate the species. In the 1970s, Robert R. Recognition and cohesion species[edit] Genetic similarity and barcode species[edit] In microbiology, genes can move freely even between distantly related bacteria, possibly extending to the whole bacterial domain. Phylogenetic, cladistic, or evolutionary species [edit] Ecological species[edit] Genetic species[edit] Chronospecies[edit]

Local optimum Attraction basins around locally optimal points Polynomial of degree 4: the trough on the right is a local minimum and the one on the left is the global minimum. The peak in the center is a local maximum. Continuous domain[edit] Search techniques[edit] If the problem to be solved has all locally optimal points with the same value of the function to be optimized, local search effectively solves the global problem: finding a local optimum delivers a globally optimal solution. In many cases, local optima deliver sub-optimal solutions to the global problem, and a local search method needs to be modified to continue the search beyond local optimality; see for example iterated local search, tabu search, reactive search optimization, and simulated annealing. See also[edit] Maxima and minima

what-is-evolution#:~:text=In%20biology%2C%20evolution%20is%20the,and%20gradually%20change%20over%20time In biology, evolution is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations and relies on the process of natural selection. The theory of evolution is based on the idea that all species? are related and gradually change over time. Evolution relies on there being genetic variation? in a population which affects the physical characteristics (phenotype) of an organism. Some of these characteristics may give the individual an advantage over other individuals which they can then pass on to their offspring. What is natural selection? Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution states that evolution happens by natural selection. Natural selection in action: the Peppered moth Before the industrial revolution in the mid-1700s, the peppered moth was most commonly a pale whitish colour with black spots. A pale peppered moth on an oak tree. Image credit: Shutterstock As the Industrial Revolution reached its peak, the air in industrial areas became full of soot. Different types of evolution

Tree model Austro-Asiatic language tree In historical linguistics, the tree model (also Stammbaum, genetic, or cladistic model) is a model of the evolution of languages analogous to the concept of a family tree, particularly a phylogenetic tree in the biological evolution of species. As with species, each language is assumed to have evolved from a single parent or "mother" language, with languages that share a common ancestor belonging to the same language family. History of the model[edit] The confusion of Babel[edit] Family tree of Biblical tribes Augustine of Hippo supposed that each of the descendants of Noah founded a nation and that each nation was given its own language: Assyrian for Assur, Hebrew for Heber, and so on.[2] In all he identified 72 nations, tribal founders and languages. Ursprache, the language of paradise[edit] St. Garden of Eden, home of the Ursprache Browne reports a number of reconstructive activities by the scholars of the times:[10] The first Indo-Europeanists[edit] Notes[edit]

Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was Electress of the Palatinate and briefly Queen of Bohemia as the wife of Frederick V of the Palatinate. Due to her husband’s reign in Bohemia lasting for just one winter, Elizabeth is often referred to as the "Winter Queen". Elizabeth was the second child and eldest daughter of James VI and I, King of Scotland, England, and Ireland, and his wife, Anne of Denmark. With the demise of the last Stuart monarch in 1714, Elizabeth's grandson succeeded to the British throne as George I, initiating the Hanoverian dynasty. Early life[edit] Move to England[edit] When Queen Elizabeth I of England died in 1603, Elizabeth Stuart's father, James, succeeded as King of England and Ireland. Under the care of Lord Harington at Coombe Abbey, Elizabeth met Anne Dudley, with whom she was to strike up a lifelong friendship. Gunpowder Plot[edit] Coombe Abbey painted in 1797 by Maria Johnson Education[edit] Courtship and marriage[edit] Suitors[edit] Courtship[edit]