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Unix philosophy. The Unix philosophy, originated by Ken Thompson, is a set of cultural norms and philosophical approaches to minimalist, modular software development. It is based on the experience of leading developers of the Unix operating system. Early Unix developers were important in bringing the concepts of modularity and reusability into software engineering practice, spawning a "software tools" movement. Over time, the leading developers of Unix (and programs that ran on it) established a set of cultural norms for developing software, norms which became as important and influential as the technology of Unix itself; this has been termed the "Unix philosophy. " The Unix philosophy emphasizes building simple, short, clear, modular, and extensible code that can be easily maintained and repurposed by developers other than its creators.

Origin[edit] Doug McIlroy attributes the philosophy of combining "small, sharp tools"[1] to accomplish larger tasks to Ken Thompson, one of the creators of Unix. How the NSA's Firmware Hacking Works and Why It's So Unsettling. One of the most shocking parts of the recently discovered spying network Equation Group is its mysterious module designed to reprogram or reflash a computer hard drive’s firmware with malicious code. The Kaspersky researchers who uncovered this said its ability to subvert hard drive firmware—the guts of any computer—“surpasses anything else” they had ever seen. The hacking tool, believed to be a product of the NSA, is significant because subverting the firmware gives the attackers God-like control of the system in a way that is stealthy and persistent even through software updates.

The module, named “nls_933w.dll”, is the first of its kind found in the wild and is used with both the EquationDrug and GrayFish spy platforms Kaspersky uncovered. It also has another capability: to create invisible storage space on the hard drive to hide data stolen from the system so the attackers can retrieve it later. Here’s what we know about the firmware-flashing module. How It Works Go Back to Top.

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Free software. Robotics. Tech news & magazines. Attention economy. Electrosphere. The GodfatherBy G. Pascal Zachary The Manhattan Project, Silicon Valley, The World Wide Web. Wherever you look in the information age, Vannevar Bush was there first. Vannevar Bush is a great name for playing six degrees of separation.

Bush's best years - he was born in 1890 - came before professors were millionaires and venture capitalists were presidents' pals. Bush started small. The device, which foreshadowed both the PC and the Web, was just one of Bush's many seminal contributions. Bush was also among the first to see the importance of venture capital and the way risk-taking inventors, drawing on top-flight universities, could spawn whole new industries - and, in the process, destroy the inefficient corporate oligarchies that ruled America from the turn of the century until the 1980s.

But if Bush's historic influence is forgotten or misunderstood, his technical inspiration is not. The birth of the PC in the mid-1970s brought Bush renewed attention. That influence continues today. Everything You Didn't Know You Could Do with Google's Voice Commands.