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Unix philosophy

We will send you a reminder email. Dear readers in Canada, time is running out in 2016 to help Wikipedia. To protect our independence, we'll never run ads. We're sustained by donations averaging about $15. The Unix philosophy emphasizes building simple, short, clear, modular, and extensible code that can be easily maintained and repurposed by developers other than its creators. Origin[edit] The UNIX philosophy is documented by Doug McIlroy[1] in the The Bell System Technical Journal from 1978:[2] Make each program do one thing well. Later summarized by Peter H.

Write programs that do one thing and do it well.Write programs to work together.Write programs to handle text streams, because that is a universal interface. In the book The Pragmatic Programmer: From Journeyman to Master the authors mention the philosophy of combining "small, sharp tools" and the use of "common underlying format—the line-oriented, plain text file"[3] to accomplish larger tasks. How the NSA's Firmware Hacking Works and Why It's So Unsettling.

One of the most shocking parts of the recently discovered spying network Equation Group is its mysterious module designed to reprogram or reflash a computer hard drive’s firmware with malicious code.

How the NSA's Firmware Hacking Works and Why It's So Unsettling

The Kaspersky researchers who uncovered this said its ability to subvert hard drive firmware—the guts of any computer—“surpasses anything else” they had ever seen. The hacking tool, believed to be a product of the NSA, is significant because subverting the firmware gives the attackers God-like control of the system in a way that is stealthy and persistent even through software updates. The module, named “nls_933w.dll”, is the first of its kind found in the wild and is used with both the EquationDrug and GrayFish spy platforms Kaspersky uncovered. It also has another capability: to create invisible storage space on the hard drive to hide data stolen from the system so the attackers can retrieve it later.

Here’s what we know about the firmware-flashing module. How It Works Go Back to Top.

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Pascal Zachary The Manhattan Project, Silicon Valley, The World Wide Web. Wherever you look in the information age, Vannevar Bush was there first. Vannevar Bush is a great name for playing six degrees of separation. Turn back the clock on any aspect of information technology - from the birth of Silicon Valley and the marriage of science and the military to the advent of the World Wide Web - and you find his footprints.

Bush's best years - he was born in 1890 - came before professors were millionaires and venture capitalists were presidents' pals. Bush started small. The device, which foreshadowed both the PC and the Web, was just one of Bush's many seminal contributions. But if Bush's historic influence is forgotten or misunderstood, his technical inspiration is not. "As We May Think" describes a device - Bush called it a "memex" - that was meant to tame the then-novel problem of information overload by enhancing human memory (hence its name).

G. Everything You Didn't Know You Could Do with Google's Voice Commands.