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Empedocles (/ɛmˈpɛdəkliːz/; Ancient Greek: Ἐμπεδοκλῆς; Empedoklēs; Ancient Greek: [empedoklɛ̂ːs]; c. 490 – 430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for being the originator of the cosmogenic theory of the four Classical elements. He also proposed powers called Love and Strife which would act as forces to bring about the mixture and separation of the elements. Life[edit] The temple of Hera at Agrigentum, built when Empedocles was a young man, c. 470 BC. Empedocles was born, c. 490 BC, at Agrigentum (Acragas) in Sicily to a distinguished family.[2] Very little is known about his life. His brilliant oratory,[6] his penetrating knowledge of nature, and the reputation of his marvellous powers, including the curing of diseases, and averting epidemics,[7] produced many myths and stories surrounding his name. Works[edit] Purifications[edit] We possess only about 100 lines of his Purifications. Related:  -2-Lucretius - On the Nature of Things

Eleusinian Mysteries Votive plaque depicting elements of the Eleusinian Mysteries, discovered in the sanctuary at Eleusis (mid-4th century BC) The rites, ceremonies, and beliefs were kept secret and consistently preserved from a hoary antiquity. The initiated believed that they would have a reward in the afterlife.[5] There are many paintings and pieces of pottery that depict various aspects of the Mysteries. Since the Mysteries involved visions and conjuring of an afterlife, some scholars believe that the power and longevity of the Eleusinian Mysteries came from psychedelic agents.[6] Mythology of Demeter and Persephone[edit] The Mysteries are related to a myth concerning Demeter, the goddess of agriculture and fertility as recounted in one of the Homeric Hymns (c. 650 BC). According to the myth, during her search Demeter traveled long distances and had many minor adventures along the way. Mysteries[edit] Participants[edit] To participate in these mysteries one had to swear a vow of secrecy. Secrets[edit]

Anaximenes of Miletus Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher Anaximenes of Miletus (; Greek: Ἀναξιμένης ὁ Μιλήσιος; c. 586 – c. 526 BC) was an Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC.[1][2] The details of his life are obscure because none of his work has been preserved. Anaximenes' ideas and philosophies are only known today because of comments made by Aristotle and other writers on the history of Greek philosophy.[3] Apollodorus of Damascus noted the dates Anaximander was alive in relation to well-known historical events, and estimated Anaximenes' lifespan as having occurred during the same time period in which Cyrus the Great defeated Croesus at the Battle of Thymbra in 546 BC.[2] Anaximenes was the last known Milesian philosopher, as Miletus was captured by the Persian army in 494 BC.[7] Anaximenes and the Arche[edit] Influence on philosophy[edit] Anaximenes, Aristotle, and Plato[edit] An artist's rendition of Anaximenes of Miletus The origin of the Cosmos[edit]

Dante Alighieri Italian poet Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri (Italian: [duˈrante deʎʎ aliˈɡjɛːri]; Latin: Dantes), commonly known by his pen name Dante Alighieri or simply as Dante (,[1][2] also ,[3] Italian: [ˈdante]; c. 1265 – 1321), was an Italian poet. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is widely considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.[4][5] In the Late Middle Ages, most poetry was written in Latin, making it accessible only to the most educated readers. In De vulgari eloquentia (On Eloquence in the Vernacular), however, Dante defended the use of the vernacular in literature. Life[edit] Early life[edit] Dante Alighieri, attributed to Giotto, in the chapel of the Bargello palace in Florence. Portrait of Dante, from a fresco in the Palazzo dei Giudici, Florence Gemma bore Dante several children. Education and poetry[edit] Exile and death[edit]

Muses Inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the Muses (Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, romanized: Moûsai, Greek: Μούσες, romanized: Múses) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts. They were considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, lyric songs, and myths that were related orally for centuries in ancient Greek culture. In modern figurative usage, a muse is a literal person or supernatural force that serves as someone's source of artistic inspiration. Etymology[edit] The word Muses (Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, romanized: Moûsai) perhaps came from the o-grade of the Proto-Indo-European root *men- (the basic meaning of which is 'put in mind' in verb formations with transitive function and 'have in mind' in those with intransitive function), or from root *men- ('to tower, mountain') since all the most important cult-centres of the Muses were on mountains or hills.[3] R. Number and names[edit] Cult[edit]

Empedocles Empedocles (/ɛmˈpɛdəkliːz/; Greek: Ἐμπεδοκλῆς [empedoklɛ̂ːs], Empedoklēs; c. 490 – c. 430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for originating the cosmogenic theory of the four classical elements. He also proposed forces he called Love and Strife which would mix and separate the elements, respectively. These physical speculations were part of a history of the universe which also dealt with the origin and development of life. Influenced by the Pythagoreans, Empedocles was a vegetarian who supported the doctrine of reincarnation. Life[edit] The temple of Hera at Akragas, built when Empedocles was a young man, c. 470 BC. Empedocles was born, c. 490 BC, at Akragas in Sicily to a distinguished family.[3] Very little is known about his life. Works[edit] Purifications[edit] We possess only about 100 fragments that have been ascribed to his Purifications. On Nature[edit] Philosophy[edit] The four elements[edit]

Asclepius Asclepius (/æsˈkliːpiəs/; Greek: Ἀσκληπιός, Asklēpiós [asklɛːpiós]; Latin: Aesculapius) was a god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek religion. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts; his daughters are Hygieia ("Hygiene", the goddess/personification of health, cleanliness, and sanitation), Iaso (the goddess of recuperation from illness), Aceso (the goddess of the healing process), Aglæa/Ægle (the goddess of beauty, splendor, glory, magnificence, and adornment), and Panacea (the goddess of universal remedy). He was associated with the Roman/Etruscan god Vediovis. Etymology[edit] The etymology of the name is unknown. Szemerényi's etymology (JHS 94, 1974, 155) from Hitt. assula(a)- 'well-being' and piya- 'give' cannot be correct, as it does not explain the velar Mythology[edit] Birth[edit] He was the son of Apollo and a human woman, Coronis. Education[edit] Asclepius became so proficient as a healer that he surpassed both Chiron and his father, Apollo. Death[edit]

Heraclitus Greek philosopher (late 6th/early 5th-century BC) Heraclitus (; Greek: Ἡράκλειτος Herákleitos; fl. c. 500 BC) was an ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher from the city of Ephesus, which was then part of the Persian Empire. Little is known of Heraclitus's life. Life[edit] Heraclitus the son of Blyson was from the Ionian city of Ephesus, a port on the Kayster River, on the western coast of Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). The main source for the life of Heraclitus is the doxographer Diogenes Laërtius. Since antiquity, Heraclitus was labeled an arrogant misanthrope.[5][6][a] The skeptic Timon of Phlius called Heraclitus a "mob-abuser" (ochloloidoros). Heraclitus is traditionally considered to have flourished in the 69th Olympiad (504–501 BC),[a] but this date may simply be based on a prior account synchronizing his life with the reign of Darius the Great. Writings[edit] Of the logos being forever do men prove to be uncomprehending, both before they hear and once they have heard it. Logos[edit]

Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto (c. 1597) is a painting by Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. It is located in the Villa Aurora, the former hunting lodge of the erstwhile Villa Ludovisi, Rome. It is unusually painted in oils on plaster. and hence it is not a fresco, although it is sometimes (incorrectly) referred to as such. Oil painting is normally on canvas or, less frequently, on wood. References[edit] External links[edit]

Hesiod Ancient Greek poet Hesiod (;[1] Greek: Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos, 'he who emits the voice') was an ancient Greek poet generally thought to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.[2][3] He is generally regarded as the first written poet in the Western tradition to regard himself as an individual persona with an active role to play in his subject.[4] Ancient authors credited Hesiod and Homer with establishing Greek religious customs.[5] Modern scholars refer to him as a major source on Greek mythology, farming techniques, early economic thought,[6] archaic Greek astronomy and ancient time-keeping. Life[edit] Hesiod and the Muse (1891), by Gustave Moreau. The poet is presented with a lyre, in contradiction to the account given by Hesiod himself in which the gift was a laurel staff. The Dance of the Muses at Mount Helicon by Bertel Thorvaldsen (1807). Various legends accumulated about Hesiod and they are recorded in several sources: Dating[edit] Modern Mount Helicon.

untitled Gorgias Gorgias (/ˈɡɔrdʒiəs/; Greek: Γοργίας, Ancient Greek: [ɡorɡías]; c. 485 – c. 380 BC),[1] called "the Nihilist," was a Greek sophist, Italiote, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician who was a native of Leontini in Sicily. Along with Protagoras, he forms the first generation of Sophists. Several doxographers report that he was a pupil of Empedocles, although he would only have been a few years younger. "Like other Sophists he was an itinerant, practicing in various cities and giving public exhibitions of his skill at the great pan-Hellenic centers of Olympia and Delphi, and charged fees for his instruction and performances. A special feature of his displays was to invite miscellaneous questions from the audience and give impromptu replies. His chief claim to recognition resides in the fact that he transplanted rhetoric from his native Sicily to Attica, and contributed to the diffusion of the Attic dialect as the language of literary prose. Life[edit] Gorgias: the Nihilist[edit]