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The Silk Road

The Silk Road
On the eastern and western sides of the continent, the civilisations of China and the West developed. The western end of the trade route appears to have developed earlier than the eastern end, principally because of the development of the the empires in the west, and the easier terrain of Persia and Syria. The Iranian empire of Persia was in control of a large area of the Middle East, extending as far as the Indian Kingdoms to the east. Trade between these two neighbours was already starting to influence the cultures of these regions. This region was taken over by Alexander the Great of Macedon, who finally conquered the Iranian empire, and colonised the area in about 330 B.C., superimposing the culture of the Greeks. Although he only ruled the area until 325 B.C., the effect of the Greek invasion was quite considerable. Close on the heels of the Parthians came the Yuezhi people from the Northern borders of the Taklimakan. The eastern end of the route developed rather more slowly. Related:  Geo Loco

Silk Road: Map, Trade, History of Silk Road. Great Silk Road During the 6-14th century, there were thousands of large and small routes that crossed Asian Continent leading to the West. Caravans followed these routes and each was filled with exotic clothes, eastern goods and spices. These routes raised the Great Silk Road. Fascinating History of Silk Road History of Silk Road is fascinating and full of military conquest, fearless explorers, religious pilgrims and great thinkers, along with the humble tradesmen who risked life and limb for profit as they led their loaded caravans across dangerous deserts, mountains and steppes. Great Silk Road: Luxury Trade The story of silk trade is very cognitive. More Than Silk There are many other luxury goods besides silk that were transported along Silk Road. A Road of Ideas As merchants and other travellers traversed Silk Road, they also carried culture, art, philosophies and beliefs with them. More Silk Road links Silk-Road.com The Silkroad FoundationWikipedia.org Great Silk Road

The science of mathematics is looked at with such importance in The science of mathematics is looked at with such importance in China that it is considered one of the six basic arts, along with ritual, music, archery, horsemanship and calligraphy (Yan, Du Shiran, 1987, p.22). It is the importance that the Chinese place on mathematics that caused it to be one of the most influential cultures in the history of the world in terms of mathematical breakthroughs. Unfortunately for the Chinese, it is only recently that they are beginning to receive the credit they deserve for their achievements. The history of Chinese mathematics is very difficult to pin point. If one takes the belief that mathematics started with astronomy then the most influential figure would be the mythical Yellow Emperor (2698-2598 B.C.). Li Shou was not the only legend of Chinese mathematics. These texts play a very minor role in the history of mathematical texts in China when compared to what may be the most important math text ever written.

Silk Road Silk Road extending from Europe through Egypt, Somalia, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Burma, Java-Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam until it reaches China. The land routes are red, and the water routes are blue. Port cities on the maritime silk route featured on the voyages of Zheng He.[1] The Silk Road, or Silk Route, is a series of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by linking traders, merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads and urban dwellers from China to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.[2] Extending 4,000 miles (6,437 kilometres), the Silk Road gets its name from the lucrative trade of Chinese silk which was carried out along its length, and began during the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Name[edit] History[edit] Precursors[edit] Cross-continental journeys[edit] Hellenistic era[edit]

Silk Road - Introduction The Silk Road is a great East to West trade route and vehicle for cross-culture exchange started in the second century BC. It was first traveled by the adventure of Zhang Qian started the journey to the far West for the political contact with Yuezhi, a nomadic tribe, in 138 BC. But, it was only in 1870s that the geographer, Ferdinand von Richthofen gave the name by which we now know as the Silk Road. The general Zhang Qian was sent by Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty (206 BC- AD 220) to recruit the Yuezhi, who were the enemies of the Xiongnu in the second century BC. As Yuezhi tribe, Xiongnu was also a nomadic group who attempted to invade the Kansu province of Han Dynasty. Because the Xiongnu could not be restrained with any lasting effects, Emperor Wu decided to look for an alliance with Yuezhi who had been defeated by their enemies Xiongnu and driven to the Ili valley, the western fringes of the Taklamakan Desert.

Tiwanaku Coordinates: 16°33′17″S 68°40′24″W / 16.55472°S 68.67333°W / -16.55472; -68.67333 Tiwanaku (Spanish: ''Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu'') is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia, South America. It is the capital of an empire that extended into present-day Peru and Chile, flourishing from AD 300 to AD 1000. Tiwanaku is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important civilizations prior to the Inca Empire; it was the ritual and administrative capital of a major state power for approximately five hundred years. The ruins of the ancient city state are near the south-eastern shore of Lake Titicaca in the La Paz Department, Ingavi Province, Tiwanaku Municipality, about 72 km (45 mi) west of La Paz. The site was first recorded in written history by Spanish conquistador Pedro Cieza de León. Cultural development and agriculture[edit] Artificially raised planting mounds are separated by shallow canals filled with water. Rise and fall of Tiwanaku[edit] Religion[edit]

Map of South-East Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia, roughly be described as geographically situated east of the Indian subcontinent, south of China and north of Australia, between the Indian Ocean (in west) and the Pacific Ocean (in east). Regions in South-East Asia It consists of two distinctive different geographic regions, one is mainland Southeast Asia, also known as Indochina, on the Indochinese peninsula; it comprises the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Vietnam and West Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), the other is the Malay Archipelago, or Maritime Southeast Asia, which comprises the countries of: Brunei (on the island of Borneo), East Malaysia (with the Malayan states of Sabah and Sarawak on the northern part of Borneo), all the islands of Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore and Timor-Leste (East Timor).

Chinese mathematics Mathematics in China emerged independently by the 11th century BC.[1] The Chinese independently developed very large and negative numbers, decimals, a place value decimal system, a binary system, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. Knowledge of Chinese mathematics before 254 BC is somewhat fragmentary, and even after this date the manuscript traditions are obscure. Dates centuries before the classical period are generally considered conjectural by Chinese scholars unless accompanied by verified archaeological evidence, in a direct analogue with the situation in the Far West. Neither Western nor Chinese archaeological findings comparable to those for Babylonia or Egypt are known. As in other early societies the focus was on astronomy in order to perfect the agricultural calendar, and other practical tasks, and not on establishing formal systems. Early Chinese mathematics[edit] Oracle bone script decimal counting rod place value decimal Qin mathematics[edit] Han mathematics[edit]

Chinese overview Version for printing Several factors led to the development of mathematics in China being, for a long period, independent of developments in other civilisations. The geographical nature of the country meant that there were natural boundaries (mountains and seas) which isolated it. On the other hand, when the country was conquered by foreign invaders, they were assimilated into the Chinese culture rather than changing the culture to their own. As a consequence there was a continuous cultural development in China from around 1000 BC and it is fascinating to trace mathematical development within that culture. There are periods of rapid advance, periods when a certain level was maintained, and periods of decline. The first thing to understand about ancient Chinese mathematics is the way in which it differs from Greek mathematics. Chinese mathematics was, like their language, very concise. The method of calculation is very simple to explain but has wide application.

The Best Global Development Quotes of 2012 Athena Review 3,1: Buried Cities of Khotan: Chronology of the Silk Road free trial issue subscribe back issues Athena Review Vol.3, no.1: Buried Cities of Khotan Chronology of the Silk Road Warring States to Han Dynasty: 5th-4th c. 330 BC: Alexander the Great of Macedon conquers Iranian Empire. 325 BC: Palmyra and Parthia reconquer Persia. 206 BC: Qin Dynasty collapses; Han Dynasty takes over under the rule of Emperor Liu Pang. mid 2nd c. 138-125 BC: Zhang Quian’s journey on Silk Road. 115 BC: Wu Ti forces the Huns to retreat to the north of the Taklamakan Desert. 6 BC-AD 5: Han Dynasty loses control of Tarim Basin to Huns. 1st c. AD 68: Han Emperor Ming Ti sends Cai Yin to the west; Yin returns with 2 Buddhist monks. AD 73: Chinese general Pan Ch’ao (under Ming Ti) reconquers the Tarim Basin. [Fig.1: Terra cotta griffin handle from Khotan (Hedin collection, Montell 1935, pl.12).] AD 144-173: Kanishka, a powerful patron of Mahâyâna Buddhism, is King of the Kushana dynasty in India (their capital at Taxila). 3 Kingdoms-T’ang Dynasties: Late T’ang-Ming Dynasties:

Internet East Asian History Sourcebook There is no way of avoiding the fact that China is the central culture of Eastern Asia. Massively larger than any of her neighbors, China may have developed its cultural forms in relative isolation, but since the advent of Buddhism has both absorbed outside influences and disseminated its own culture. Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese cultures are not comprehensible without taking into account power of Chinese culture in art, literature and religion. Chinese culture itself is highly complex, and the other East Asian cultures also reflect local circumstances and traditions. For instance the (later) Chinese ideal of a scholar-gentleman contrasts strongly with Japanese warrior ideals. It is not going to far to suggest that the very different responses of the various East Asian to the Western intrusion of the past two centuries reflect the variety of previous historical developments. See my Brooklyn College: Chinese Cultural Studies class page. General The Korean War The Non-Aligned Movement U.S.

Related:  Silk Road