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No one could see the color blue until modern times

No one could see the color blue until modern times
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Uutiset: Lihavuus näkyy aivojen välittäjäaineissa Aalto-yliopiston ja Turun yliopiston tutkijat selvittivät, että lihavuuden taustalla voi olla muutoksia aivojen välittäjäaineiden toiminnassa. Suomalaistutkijoiden uusimmat tulokset osoittavat, kuinka lihavuus on yhteydessä aivojen mielihyvää säätelevän opioidijärjestelmän kemiallisiin muutoksiin. Tutkijat havaitsivat, että liikalihavilla henkilöillä aivojen mielihyvän kokemuksia tuottavan opioidijärjestelmän neuroreseptorien määrä oli vähentynyt merkittävästi. Liikalihavilla henkilöillä aivojen opioidireseptorien määrä on madaltunut (ylärivi) mutta dopamiinireseptorien määrä on normaali. Lihavuus on merkittävä terveysriski, joka altistaa esimerkiksi sydän- ja verisuonisairauksille sekä tyypin 2 diabetekselle. – Tuloksemme osoittavat, että lihavuus on yhteydessä aivojen kemiallisiin muutoksiin. – Tuloksilla on laajaa merkitystä lihavuuden syntymekanismien ymmärtämiselle. Tutkimusta rahoittivat Suomen Akatemia, Sigrid Juseliuksen säätiö ja Suomen Diabetestutkimussäätiö.

Babies with two biological same-sex parents could become a reality in just two years · PinkNews Researchers from Cambridge University have found that it is possible to make a baby using the skin cells of parents of the same sex. A stem cell research breakthrough has revealed that in just two years same-sex couples could have their own biological children. Researchers from Cambridge University have discovered that it is possible to make a baby using skill cells of parents of the same sex. The researchers have shown, for the first time, that human egg and sperm cells can be made from stem cells in the skin of two adults. They have stated that the technique could mean same-sex couples could have babies in just two years. The scientists used stem cell lines from embryos as well as cells from the skin of five different adults. The team, funded by The Wellcome Trust, compared the engineered stem cells with human cells from foetuses to make sure they had identical characteristics. Recently, MPs voted in favour of the creation of babies with DNA from two women and one man.

How the language you speak changes your view of the world - Science - News Bilinguals get all the perks. Better job prospects, a cognitive boost and even protection against dementia. Now new research shows that they can also view the world in different ways depending on the specific language they are operating in. The past 15 years have witnessed an overwhelming amount of research on the bilingual mind, with the majority of the evidence pointing to the tangible advantages of using more than one language. Just as regular exercise gives your body some biological benefits, mentally controlling two or more languages gives your brain cognitive benefits. Germans know where they’re going In research we recently published in Psychological Science, we studied German-English bilinguals and monolinguals to find out how different language patterns affected how they reacted in experiments. When you give a scene like that to a monolingual German speaker they will tend to describe the action but also the goal of the action. Switch languages, change perspective

A new Google-powered website lets you compare every constitution in the world and write your own In an ornate hall in the Philadelphia State House in 1787, a few dozen men drafted the US constitution. For four months, they debated and revised the document until they had something they could generally agree on. Today, they wouldn’t even have to leave their homes. A new site could let any diplomats-to-be work on drafting a new constitution in real time over the web. Constitute is a repository of all the world’s constitutions, run by the Comparative Constitutions Project, and funded by Google Ideas and the Indigo Trust—a British charity that funds tech projects mainly in Africa. Founded in 2013 (and redesigned in December), Constitute allows users to compare phrasing and ideas across multiple constitutions, highlighting similarities between documents. Beyond search and comparisons, Constitute can be used to collaboratively create new constitutions, with the help of Google Docs.

Aivojen puhekeskukseksi luultu alue onkin puhuessa kiinni - Aivot - Tiede Aivojen puhekeskukseksi luultu alue onkin puhuessa kiinni Aivojemme Brocan aluetta on pidetty paikkana, joka vastaa puheesta. Berkeleyn yliopiston tutkijat sanovatkin nyt, että alue kytkeytyy pois päältä, kun alamme itse puhua. Muita kuunnellessa sen aktiivisuus taas palaa. Brocan alue ei siis ehkä olekaan puheen keskus vaan muuten puheelle tärkeä alue. Se yhdistää ja jakaa tietoa puheesta muualle aivoihin. Aivotutkijat selvittivät asiaa sähköisten signaalien avulla. Tulokset voivat vaikuttaa niiden potilaiden hoitoon, jotka ovat saaneet aivohalvauksen, kärsivät epilepsiasta tai ovat saaneet aivovaurion. Brocan alue sijaitsee isoaivokuorella otsalohkon sivulla, vasemman silmän takana. Tutkijat puhuivat Brocan alueen uudesta tulkinnasta Yhdysvaltain tiedeviikolla San Josessa ja Yhdysvaltain tiedeakatemian Pnas-lehdessä.

Scientists say all the world’s data can fit on a DNA hard drive the size of a teaspoon Even though it’s looking increasingly likely that humanity will find a way to wipe itself off the face of the Earth, there’s a chance that our creative output may live on. Servers, hard drives, flash drives, and disks will degrade (as will our libraries of paper books, of course), but a group of researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology have found a way to encode data onto DNA—the very same stuff that all living beings’ genetic information is stored on—that could survive for millennia. One gram of DNA can potentially hold up to 455 exabytes of data, according to the New Scientist. For reference: There are one billion gigabytes in an exabyte, and 1,000 exabytes in a zettabyte. There are four types of molecules that make up DNA, which form pairs. Past tests have seen gaps in retrieved information, as DNA reacts with its environment and degrades at room temperature. For now, the process remains expensive.

Sweden's Rare Viking Forest Language This is the region where the Viking forest language is spoken. All of the Nordic languages; Icelandic, Faroese, Swedish, Danish and Norwegian are descended from Old Norse, the language of the Vikings. These languages have all evolved in different ways over the past 1000 years, so they are very different from each other. This very rare Nordic language, known as Elfdalian, was previously regarded as a dialect, but leading linguists now agree it is a separate language. The language sounds like some Elf tongue from the Hobbit but is a real language found only in the forests of central Sweden. This is a song in Elfdalian or “älvdalska” “Often Norwegians, Danes and Swedes can understand each others’ languages and dialects. The Israeli professor taught himself Elfdalian and is fascinated by the language: The people of Älvdalen are wonderful but they are different to the city folk I am used to. “Elfdalian is a goldmine. Enjoyed this article? Empowerlingua · May 5, 2015

untitled 25 Mind-Twisting Optical Illusion Paintings By Rob Gonsalves The beautiful and mind-bending illusions in Canadian artist Robert Gonsalves’ paintings have a fun way of twisting your perception and causing you to question what in his paintings, if anything, is real. Most of his stunning paintings have an unclear boundary between the multiple stories they tell, which forces the viewer to jump back and forth between them – like an optical illusion that changes every time you look at it. Gonsalves’ interest in art began at an early age, which is why he became comfortable with painting such complex misdirections. More info: Facebook (h/t: Vaalkor)

The strongest biological material we know of is actually a snail’s tooth The limpet is not a terribly interesting organism on the surface. This group of aquatic snails live their lives inching along rocks, scraping off algae for food. The way they scrape those rocks clean is actually getting a lot of interest in scientific circles, though. These teeth aren’t like the teeth we humans have. To test the strength of limpet teeth, the team started with tiny fragments and shaved them down to a microscopic dog-bone shape. Compared to man-made materials, limpet teeth are better than kevlar and almost as good as the strongest carbon fiber composites. This could be a big deal in materials science, and we have an unassuming little mollusk to thank for it.

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