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Reported Speech

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Speech. What is grammatical speech?

Speech

Speech is usually divided between two types: direct speech and reported speech (also known as indirect speech). Reported speech: indirect speech - English Grammar Today - Cambridge Dictionary. Indirect speech focuses more on the content of what someone said rather than their exact words.

Reported speech: indirect speech - English Grammar Today - Cambridge Dictionary

In indirect speech, the structure of the reported clause depends on whether the speaker is reporting a statement, a question or a command. Reported speech: indirect speech - English Grammar Today - Cambridge Dictionary. Indirect speech focuses more on the content of what someone said rather than their exact words.

Reported speech: indirect speech - English Grammar Today - Cambridge Dictionary

In indirect speech, the structure of the reported clause depends on whether the speaker is reporting a statement, a question or a command. Indirect reports of statements consist of a reporting clause and a that-clause. We often omit that, especially in informal situations: The pilot commented that the weather had been extremely bad as the plane came in to land. (The pilot’s words were: ‘The weather was extremely bad as the plane came in to land.’) I told my wife I didn’t want a party on my 50th birthday. Reported speech: indirect speech - English Grammar Today - Cambridge Dictionary. Reported speech: direct speech - English Grammar Today - Cambridge Dictionary. Reported speech - English Grammar Today - Cambridge Dictionary.

Reported speech - English Grammar Today - Cambridge Dictionary. Reported speech: direct speech - English Grammar Today - Cambridge Dictionary. Direct speech is a representation of the actual words someone said.

Reported speech: direct speech - English Grammar Today - Cambridge Dictionary

A direct speech report usually has a reporting verb in the past simple. The most common reporting verb is said. The reporting clause may come first or second. The reporting clause may sometimes come in the middle of the reported clause, especially in literary styles: “No,” she said, “I’ve never seen it before.” ‘Was it,’ he asked, ‘the first time you had spoken to Mrs Dalton?’ We can use adverbs with the reporting verb to describe the way someone said something. “I will not accept it!” ‘Can I speak to the doctor?’ In narratives, especially novels and short stories, when the reporting clause comes second, we often invert the subject (s) and reporting verb (v): “Things have always been the same in this village,” [V]said [S]the old man. ‘Hold on! In informal conversation, we sometimes use the present simple in the reporting clause. So then this guy says, “I’ve got something for you. She says, ‘What’s going on here?’ ("Reported Speech " "indirect Speech") modal verbs at DuckDuckGo.

Reported Speech (Indirect Speech) What is reported speech?

Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

When we tell other people what someone else told us, it is called indirect speech or reported speech. We use reporting verbs to introduce the information that was spoken previously. Reporting verbs The most common so-called “reporting verbs” are say and tell. When we use tell, we need to use another person’s name, or a personal pronoun representing him or her, as an indirect object.

For example: “She said she was late for the appointment yesterday.” “She told me she was late for the appointment yesterday. Remember, the personal pronouns are me, you, him, her, it, us, and them. Other reporting verbs include ask, instruct, explain, mention, suggest, claim, and many more. Indirect Quotations. By Maeve Maddox Colorful, striking direct quotations enliven a news story, but not everything an interview subject says is worth quoting in its entirety.

Indirect Quotations

An hour of note-taking might result in a lot of information, but little in the way of pithy remarks. It’s the writer’s job to distinguish between what’s worth quoting verbatim, and what would be better paraphrased. For example, you have interviewed numerous students and faculty about a university decision against arming teaching staff. Their comments are all very similar, so you decide not to quote them directly. Students and faculty interviewed for this story said they were relieved by the decision. Certain alterations must be made when turning a direct quotation into reported speech. Direct quotation: “I plan to climb Mount McKinley tomorrow.”Indirect quotation: Jones said he planned to climb Mount McKinley the following day. Go becomes went, is becomes was, will becomes would, and so on. Whether to Use “Whether” or “If” By Mark Nichol Sometimes, when it comes to deciding between using the word whether and employing the word if, the correct choice is obvious: “I don’t know if to turn the oven knob left or right” is obviously wrong, but the almost-identical statement “I don’t know if I should turn the oven knob left or right” is acceptable.

Whether to Use “Whether” or “If”

However, because if implies probability, and whether indicates a choice between alternatives, in formal writing, the latter is more appropriate. Similarly, “I don’t remember if I turned the oven off” is correct, but because “I don’t remember whether I turned the oven off” more clearly expresses that two alternatives exist, it is better in formal contexts. “Turn the oven off if you are leaving” is a conditional sentence — it involves probability, not choice — and therefore if is correct. How to Indicate Unspoken and Indirect Discourse. By Mark Nichol What type of markers or emphasis should a writer give to signal that a character’s thoughts are unspoken?

How to Indicate Unspoken and Indirect Discourse

Though some people disagree, the consensus is that they should be enclosed in quotation marks as if they were said aloud: 1. “She surveyed the shambles of her room and thought, ‘Where do I start?’” This mode of what is known as unspoken discourse assumes that internally vocalized thoughts are a form of direct speech. 2. In this case, the person would not think, “Where should she start?” Indirect discourse has another, similar form: 3. Notice that in this example, a different type of paraphrase, a comma does not precede the thought, and no question mark punctuates this sentence, because it’s not a question. As I mentioned above, some writers prefer to omit quotation marks in unspoken discourse: 4. “The voice seemed to resonate inside her: Go forth, and fear not.” Subscribe to Receive our Articles and Exercises via Email.

Reporting: reports and summaries. Many teachers and learners think that tense forms in reported speech are complex.

reporting: reports and summaries

In fact, "reported speech" follows exactly the same rules as the rest of the language. 1. Grammar: indirect speech. Reporting verbs with that, wh- and if clauses. Reporting verbs with that clauses: Some verbs introduce a report, an idea or a summary.

reporting verbs with that, wh- and if clauses

These verbs have the pattern: N + V + (that) + clause. Reported questions. Reported questions When we report what people say, we usually change the tense of the verbs to reflect that we are reporting – not giving direct speech. This pattern is followed when we report questions and there are also other important changes between direct questions and reported questions. Yes/no questions Direct question: “Do you like working in teams?” Reported speech 2. Reported speech (2) Remember that in reported speech we usually change the tense of the direct statement. The present simple tense changes to the past simple, the past simple changes to the past perfect and so on. Here are some other points to consider. ‘Can’ and ‘will’ Reported speech 1. Reported speech (1) When we report someone’s words we can do it in two ways.

Reported speech: indirect speech - English Grammar Today - Cambridge Dictionary. Indirect speech focuses more on the content of what someone said rather than their exact words. In indirect speech, the structure of the reported clause depends on whether the speaker is reporting a statement, a question or a command.

Indirect reports of statements consist of a reporting clause and a that-clause. We often omit that, especially in informal situations: The pilot commented that the weather had been extremely bad as the plane came in to land. (The pilot’s words were: ‘The weather was extremely bad as the plane came in to land.’) I told my wife I didn’t want a party on my 50th birthday. How to use 'say' and 'tell' in reported speech. Reporting Verbs. Download this explanation in PDF here.Try an exercise about reporting verbs here.

In the page about reported speech, we talked about how to change direct speech ("I love coffee") into reported speech (Seonaid said that she loved coffee), using the verbs 'say', 'tell' and 'ask'. However, we can also use many other verbs to report what someone said, like 'promise', 'warn', 'advise' and 'recommend'. Some of these verbs look a bit more complicated to use than 'say' and 'tell', but it's just a question of getting to know the verb patterns (or verb structures). (As I'm sure you know, we can often choose if we want to use 'that' or not in English. Reported Speech Exercises. Reported Speech.

Click here for a list of reported speech exercises.Click here to download this explanation in PDF.