François-Marie Arouet ( French: [fʁɑ̃.swa ma.ʁi aʁ.wɛ] ; 21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire ( pronounced: [vɔl.tɛːʁ] ), was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion , freedom of expression , and separation of church and state . Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works.
Jacques Derrida ( pron.: / ʒ ɑː k ˈ d ɛr ɨ d ə / ; French: [ʒak dɛʁida] ; July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French philosopher, born in French Algeria .
Socrates ( pron.: / ˈ s ɒ k r ə t iː z / ; Greek : Σωκράτης , Ancient Greek pronunciation: [sɔːkrátɛːs] , Sōkrátēs ; c. 469 BC – 399 BC) [ 1 ] was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher .
Islamic philosophy Islamic philosophy is a branch of Islamic studies on the Quran . It is the continuous search for Hikma ( Arabic : حكمة ), meaning wisdom, in the light of the Islamic view of life , the universe , ethics , society , and so on. Islamic philosophy, understood as a "project of independent philosophical inquiry" began in Baghdad in the middle of the 8th century. [ 1 ]
Al-Kindi Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī ( Arabic : أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي , Latin : Alkindus ) (c. 801–873 CE), known as "the Philosopher of the Arabs", was a Muslim Arab philosopher , mathematician , physician , and musician .
First published Fri Dec 1, 2006; substantive revision Wed Jan 26, 2011 Al-Kindi
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian - British philosopher who worked primarily in logic , the philosophy of mathematics , the philosophy of mind , and the philosophy of language . [ 1 ] He was professor in philosophy at the University of Cambridge from 1939 until 1947. [ 2 ] In his lifetime, he published just one book review, one article, a children's dictionary, and the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921). [ 3 ] In 1999, his posthumously published Philosophical Investigations (1953) was ranked as the most important book of 20th-century philosophy by the Baruch Poll, standing out as "...the one crossover masterpiece in twentieth-century philosophy, appealing across diverse specializations and philosophical orientations". [ 4 ] Philosopher Bertrand Russell described him as "the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived, passionate, profound, intense, and dominating". [ 5 ]
Philosophical Investigations Philosophical Investigations ( Philosophische Untersuchungen ) is a highly influential work by the 20th-century philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein .