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The Brain

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Working memory: Underlying processes are more complex than we thought. Working memory: maintaining new information for a short time When we want to remember a new piece of information for a short time, for example a phone number, working memory is called upon.

Working memory: Underlying processes are more complex than we thought

Different brain regions are involved in this process, including the hippocampus, which is known for its crucial role in long-term memory. The team headed by Prof Dr Nikolai Axmacher from the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience in Bochum and Marcin Leszczynski, researcher in Bochum and at the Department of Epileptology at Bonn University, studied rhythmic activity patterns in the hippocampus while the subjects memorised sequences of numbers or faces. Two activity states at semi-second intervals To this end, the team worked with epilepsy patients who had electrodes implanted into the hippocampus for the purpose of surgical planning. Seemingly simple tasks require highly complex processes.

Scientists reduce belief in God by shutting down the brain's medial frontal cortex. Emotion - The Psychology of Emotion. If you ask someone to describe what an emotion is, they might say it is a feeling, sentiment, reaction, passion, excitement, or sensation.

Emotion - The Psychology of Emotion

Another definition of emotion is it is a spontaneous feeling arising from a person, thing, or experience. Emotions are unique to each individual, are perception based, and subjective experiences. Theories of Emotion. Emotions exert anincredibly powerful force on human behavior.

Theories of Emotion

Strong emotions can cause you to take actions you might not normally perform, or avoid situations that you generally enjoy. Why exactly do we have emotions? What causes us to have these feelings? Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience/Motivation and Emotion. Introduction[edit] Happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, disgust and fear.

Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience/Motivation and Emotion

All these words describe some kind of abstract inner states in humans, in some cases difficult to control.

The Brain in Nature magazine

Articles on the Brain in New Scientist. The Brain in Discover magazine. The Brain in MIT Technology Review. Articles on the Brain in the Daily Mail. Brain Notes. The Brain: When things go wrong. Scientists recreate ghosts, or, strange phenomenon in the lab. Swiss researchers carried out an experiment to make artificial 'ghosts'The sensation was re-created by researchers using a robot to interfere with the sensory signals in the brains of blindfolded volunteers By Mark Prigg For Published: 17:25 GMT, 29 April 2015 | Updated: 17:42 GMT, 29 April 2015.

Scientists recreate ghosts, or, strange phenomenon in the lab

Gene that makes human brain unique identified by scientists. Parkinson’s and depression drugs can alter moral judgment, study shows. Common drugs for depression and Parkinson’s can sway people’s moral judgments about harming others, according to research that raises ethical questions about the use of the drugs.

Parkinson’s and depression drugs can alter moral judgment, study shows

The study found that when healthy people were given a one-off dose of a serotonin-boosting drug widely used to treat depression they became more protective of others, paying almost twice as much to prevent them receiving an electric shock in a laboratory experiment. They also became more reluctant to expose themselves to pain. The scientists also found that the dopamine-enhancing Parkinson’s drug, levodopa, made healthy people more selfish, wiping out the normal tendency to prefer to receive an electric shock themselves, while sparing those around them. Brain scans reveal what happens during an out-of-body experience  Neuroscientist used video headsets to trick volunteers into believing they were looking out from a stranger's bodySpecific regions of the brain lit up during the out-of-body experienceNeurons called 'place cells' appeared to also play a role in the illusionIt suggests abnormal brain activity may lie behind out-of-body experiences By Richard Gray for MailOnline Published: 12:54 GMT, 1 May 2015 | Updated: 17:30 GMT, 1 May 2015 They have been interpreted as evidence of the existence of a soul and even life after death, but now scientists may have unravelled what is going on when people have out-of-body experiences.

Brain scans reveal what happens during an out-of-body experience 

Researchers devised a devious experiment to trick volunteers into thinking they had left their own body while undergoing brain scans. They found that specific areas of the brain lit up with activity according to where in the room a person thought they were. Train Your Brain To Let Go Of Habits – 10 Methods For Creating New Neural Pathways.

When you understand how neural pathways are created in the brain, you get a front row seat for truly comprehending how to let go of habits.

Train Your Brain To Let Go Of Habits – 10 Methods For Creating New Neural Pathways

Neural pathways are like superhighways of nerve cells that transmit messages. You travel over the superhighway many times, and the pathway becomes more and more solid. Human brain. The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but has a more developed cortex than any other.

Human brain

Large animals such as whales and elephants have larger brains in absolute terms, but when measured using the encephalization quotient which compensates for body size, the human brain is almost twice as large as the brain of the bottlenose dolphin, and three times as large as the brain of a chimpanzee. Much of the expansion comes from the part of the brain called the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal lobes, which are associated with executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought.

The portion of the cerebral cortex devoted to vision is also greatly enlarged in humans. The human cerebral cortex is a thick layer of neural tissue that covers most of the brain. This layer is folded in a way that increases the amount of surface that can fit into the volume available. Brain: Multiple contacts are key to synapse formation. Multiple synaptic contacts between nerve cells facilitate the creation of a new contact, as neuroscientists from the Bernstein Center Freiburg and the Forschungszentrum Jülich report in the latest issue of the journal PLoS Computational Biology.

Brain: Multiple contacts are key to synapse formation

An integral mechanism of memory foundation is the formation of additional contacts between neurons in the brain. However, until now it was not known what conditions lead to the development of such synapses and how they are stabilized once created. By studying mathematical models, the scientists found a simple explanation for how and when synapses form -- or disappear -- in the brain. The scientists investigated the hypothesis that synapses between nerve cells strengthen if they are active in quick succession. New regulator discovered for information transfer in the brain. The protein mSYD1 has a key function in transmitting information between neurons. This was recently discovered by the research group of Prof Peter Scheiffele at the Biozentrum, University of Basel. The findings of the investigations have been published in the scientific journal Neuron.

Synapses are the most important sites of information transfer between neurons. The functioning of our brain is based on the ability of the synapses to release neurotransmitter substances in a fraction of a second, so that neuronal signals can be rapidly propagated and integrated. Communication problems in the brain. For brain cells to communicate, the contacts to each other must function. The protein molecule neuroligin-1 plays an important role in this as it stimulates the necessary maturation processes at the contact sites (synapses) of the nerves. A synaptic maturation disorder is possibly involved in the development of autism.

Dr. Thomas Dresbach and his team from the Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Heidelberg, in cooperation with the study group led by Professor Dr. The Whole Brain Atlas. 10 Things You Didn't Know About the Brain. Neil Burgess: How your brain tells you where you are. Explore the Brain and Mind - Mapping the Brain. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres — the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere. Bridging the two hemispheres is a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum. The two hemispheres communicate with one another across the corpus callosum. Covering the outermost layer of the cerebrum is a sheet of tissue called the cerebral cortex. Because of its gray color, the cerebral cortex is often referred to as gray matter. Nuts and Bolts the neuron. A single neuron may be connected to as many as 200 000 others, via junctions called synapses.

They form an extensive network throughout the body, and can transmit signals at speeds of 100 metres per second. Induction: The Making of a Neuron. Neurons: A Curious Collection of Shapes and Sizes. Like blood, liver, muscle, and other body cells, neurons have an outer membrane, a nucleus, and smaller structures called organelles that perform important functions. But neurons also have something other cells don’t: highly complex extensions called dendrites and axons that transport electrical and chemical messages in and out of the cell, enabling neurons to communicate with one another with incredible speed and precision. The intricate branches, or arbors, of these extensions are what give neurons their beautifully strange and varied shapes. Dendrite arbors, for example, make some neurons look like sea coral, others like spider webs, and still others like round balls of tumbleweed. Axonal arbors are equally diverse. They can have a simple T shape and be quite short (less than one inch).

An extraordinary diversity Scientists have been identifying and classifying neurons for more than 100 years. That diversity is extraordinary. Surprising findings A way to save space. Neuron Conversations: How Brain Cells Communicate. Neurons and Memory. Whenever I read about someone diagnosed with Alzheimers who apparently goes in and out of the memory problems it makes me wonder how carefully they were diagnosed.

There is a kind of simple partial seizure that mimics Alzheimers called a jamais vu. Mirror Neurons. In the early 1990s, Italian researchers made an astonishing and quite unexpected discovery. Complexity of single neurons? Physics Forums. Neurotransmitters: How Brain Cells Use Chemicals to Communicate. Glia: the Other Brain Cells. Mystery of the Human Brain's Glia Cells Solved. Mapping Brain Circuits. Brain Evolution: Neurogenomics Targets the Genes That Make Us Human. The Human Brain Atlas at Michigan State University.

Did a Copying Mistake Build Man's Brain? Brain Scans Show Who You're Thinking About. The Invisible Hand Illusion. Brain damage can make people immune to the gambler’s fallacy. Sex or Attachment: Why Do We Fall in Love, Really? By Bonnie Williams. Allen Brain Atlas: Human Brain. Debunked: Memory-Molecule Theory. Scientists Cast Light Onto Roots of Illness Deep in the Brain. Spurious Positive Mapping of the Brain? Brain scan breakthrough show researches just what you're thinking about and could lead to treatment for disorders like autism.

How to Make Your Own Evil Twin. Researchers map Phineas Gage's pierced brain. How the Brain Creates and Uses Personality Models to Predict Behavior. The brain's emergency response call. Vaughan Bell: the trouble with brain scans. Brain Not Required For Antidepressant To Act. Brain Cells Know Which Way You'll Bet. A surprise makes memories wobbly. Brainbow: See the brain in different lights. Paralyzed Patient Swills Coffee by Issuing Thought Commands to a Robot. Been Thinking of Somebody? Brain Researchers Know Who. Neurons never forget a face. The Brain May Disassemble Itself in Sleep.

Is There a Difference between the Brain of an Atheist and the Brain of a Religious Person? Why is it Impossible to Stop Thinking, to Render the Mind a Complete Blank? Buff Your Brain. The Split Brain Experiments : Games from Brain and Behavior Student Site. Why we forget. Slacker or go-getter? Brain chemical may tell.

Solving the 'Cocktail Party Problem'