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Emotion - The Psychology of Emotion. If you ask someone to describe what an emotion is, they might say it is a feeling, sentiment, reaction, passion, excitement, or sensation.

Emotion - The Psychology of Emotion

Another definition of emotion is it is a spontaneous feeling arising from a person, thing, or experience. Emotions are unique to each individual, are perception based, and subjective experiences. It could be argued that emotions are the sole reason for therapeutic interventions. People go to counselors because they do not like how they feel. In other words, their emotions are too strong and upsetting or the individual does not appear to have emotions at all. There is an infinite number or ways to describe emotion.

Primary versus Secondary EmotionPrimary emotions are the first emotions a person feel consequent to an event. Key Figures & Theories Theories of Emotion Most theories of emotion are based on physiology, thought, and the actual emotion. In what order do these occur? Key People & Their Theories (with "Bear" examples) Walter B. Joseph E. Theories of Emotion. Emotions exert anincredibly powerful force on human behavior.

Theories of Emotion

Strong emotions can cause you to take actions you might not normally perform, or avoid situations that you generally enjoy. Why exactly do we have emotions? What causes us to have these feelings? Researchers, philosophers, and psychologists have proposed a number of different theories to explain the how and why behind human emotions. Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience/Motivation and Emotion.

Introduction[edit] Happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, disgust and fear.

Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience/Motivation and Emotion

All these words describe some kind of abstract inner states in humans, in some cases difficult to control. We usually call them feelings or emotions. But what is the reason that we are able to "feel"?

The Brain in Nature magazine

Articles on the Brain in New Scientist. The Brain in Discover magazine. The Brain in MIT Technology Review. Articles on the Brain in the Daily Mail. Brain Notes. The Brain: When things go wrong. Scientists recreate ghosts, or, strange phenomenon in the lab. Swiss researchers carried out an experiment to make artificial 'ghosts'The sensation was re-created by researchers using a robot to interfere with the sensory signals in the brains of blindfolded volunteers By Mark Prigg For Dailymail.com Published: 17:25 GMT, 29 April 2015 | Updated: 17:42 GMT, 29 April 2015.

Scientists recreate ghosts, or, strange phenomenon in the lab

Gene that makes human brain unique identified by scientists. A strand of DNA that lies at the heart of what makes humans unique in the animal kingdom has been identified by researchers in Germany.

Gene that makes human brain unique identified by scientists

Scientists in Dresden found a gene that drives the expansion of the human brain and helps to make it the most complex structure in the universe. Researchers believe the gene plays a pivotal role in human cognition by ramping up dramatically the number of neurons in the neocortex, a brain region that is central to reasoning, language and sensory perception. The gene is found in modern humans, but was also carried by neanderthals, who had brains at least as large as ours, and the mysterious Denisovans, a group of human ancestors known only from a few bone fragments in Siberia. Parkinson’s and depression drugs can alter moral judgment, study shows.

Common drugs for depression and Parkinson’s can sway people’s moral judgments about harming others, according to research that raises ethical questions about the use of the drugs.

Parkinson’s and depression drugs can alter moral judgment, study shows

The study found that when healthy people were given a one-off dose of a serotonin-boosting drug widely used to treat depression they became more protective of others, paying almost twice as much to prevent them receiving an electric shock in a laboratory experiment. They also became more reluctant to expose themselves to pain. The scientists also found that the dopamine-enhancing Parkinson’s drug, levodopa, made healthy people more selfish, wiping out the normal tendency to prefer to receive an electric shock themselves, while sparing those around them. Brain scans reveal what happens during an out-of-body experience  Neuroscientist used video headsets to trick volunteers into believing they were looking out from a stranger's bodySpecific regions of the brain lit up during the out-of-body experienceNeurons called 'place cells' appeared to also play a role in the illusionIt suggests abnormal brain activity may lie behind out-of-body experiences By Richard Gray for MailOnline Published: 12:54 GMT, 1 May 2015 | Updated: 17:30 GMT, 1 May 2015 They have been interpreted as evidence of the existence of a soul and even life after death, but now scientists may have unravelled what is going on when people have out-of-body experiences.

Brain scans reveal what happens during an out-of-body experience 

Researchers devised a devious experiment to trick volunteers into thinking they had left their own body while undergoing brain scans. They found that specific areas of the brain lit up with activity according to where in the room a person thought they were. Scroll down for video Others claim to have had such experiences after taking hallucinogenic drugs or mushrooms. Train Your Brain To Let Go Of Habits – 10 Methods For Creating New Neural Pathways. When you understand how neural pathways are created in the brain, you get a front row seat for truly comprehending how to let go of habits.

Train Your Brain To Let Go Of Habits – 10 Methods For Creating New Neural Pathways

Neural pathways are like superhighways of nerve cells that transmit messages. You travel over the superhighway many times, and the pathway becomes more and more solid. You may go to a specific food or cigarettes for comfort over and over, and that forms a brain pathway. The hopeful fact, however, is that the brain is always changing and you can forge new pathways and create new habits. Human brain. The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but has a more developed cortex than any other.

Human brain

Large animals such as whales and elephants have larger brains in absolute terms, but when measured using the encephalization quotient which compensates for body size, the human brain is almost twice as large as the brain of the bottlenose dolphin, and three times as large as the brain of a chimpanzee. Much of the expansion comes from the part of the brain called the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal lobes, which are associated with executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought. The portion of the cerebral cortex devoted to vision is also greatly enlarged in humans. Brain: Multiple contacts are key to synapse formation. Multiple synaptic contacts between nerve cells facilitate the creation of a new contact, as neuroscientists from the Bernstein Center Freiburg and the Forschungszentrum Jülich report in the latest issue of the journal PLoS Computational Biology.

Brain: Multiple contacts are key to synapse formation

An integral mechanism of memory foundation is the formation of additional contacts between neurons in the brain. However, until now it was not known what conditions lead to the development of such synapses and how they are stabilized once created. By studying mathematical models, the scientists found a simple explanation for how and when synapses form -- or disappear -- in the brain. The scientists investigated the hypothesis that synapses between nerve cells strengthen if they are active in quick succession. This consolidates memory. Dr. New regulator discovered for information transfer in the brain. The protein mSYD1 has a key function in transmitting information between neurons.

This was recently discovered by the research group of Prof Peter Scheiffele at the Biozentrum, University of Basel. The findings of the investigations have been published in the scientific journal Neuron. Synapses are the most important sites of information transfer between neurons. The functioning of our brain is based on the ability of the synapses to release neurotransmitter substances in a fraction of a second, so that neuronal signals can be rapidly propagated and integrated. Peter Scheiffele's team has now identified a new mechanism, which ensures that synaptic vesicles, the carrier of the transmitter substances, are concentrated at their designated place, thereby contributing to rapid signal transmission.

Communication problems in the brain. For brain cells to communicate, the contacts to each other must function. The protein molecule neuroligin-1 plays an important role in this as it stimulates the necessary maturation processes at the contact sites (synapses) of the nerves. A synaptic maturation disorder is possibly involved in the development of autism. Dr. Thomas Dresbach and his team from the Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Heidelberg, in cooperation with the study group led by Professor Dr. Thomas Kuner at the same institute and Professor Dr. One hundred billion nerve cells make our brain a thinking machine. Neuroligin-1 protein necessary for maturation. The Whole Brain Atlas. 10 Things You Didn't Know About the Brain. Neil Burgess: How your brain tells you where you are.

Neil Burgess. Explore the Brain and Mind - BrainFacts.org. Mapping the Brain. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres — the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere. Bridging the two hemispheres is a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum. The two hemispheres communicate with one another across the corpus callosum. Covering the outermost layer of the cerebrum is a sheet of tissue called the cerebral cortex. Because of its gray color, the cerebral cortex is often referred to as gray matter. Nuts and Bolts the neuron. A single neuron may be connected to as many as 200 000 others, via junctions called synapses.

They form an extensive network throughout the body, and can transmit signals at speeds of 100 metres per second. This enables animals to process and respond to events rapidly, for example by carrying sensory information from the ears to the brain, then instructions for movement from the brain to the leg muscles Within a neuron, signals are transmitted by a change of membrane voltage – a variation in the difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell. This electrical signal moves along the neuron as an electrical pulse (the ‘action potential’). The nature of the connection between neurons was hotly debated until early-20th-century experiments by Otto Loewi and Sir Henry Dale (a founding trustee and chairman of the Wellcome Trust) showed that signals are typically transmitted across synapses by chemicals called neurotransmitters.

Nervous research. Induction: The Making of a Neuron. Even more astonishing is that this process takes place as the embryo is developing. Induction and proliferation are followed by migration, during which the newly formed neurons travel to their final destination. Throughout life, the nervous system is active, making new connections and fine-tuning the way messages are sent and received. Neurons: A Curious Collection of Shapes and Sizes.

Like blood, liver, muscle, and other body cells, neurons have an outer membrane, a nucleus, and smaller structures called organelles that perform important functions. But neurons also have something other cells don’t: highly complex extensions called dendrites and axons that transport electrical and chemical messages in and out of the cell, enabling neurons to communicate with one another with incredible speed and precision. Neuron Conversations: How Brain Cells Communicate. Nerve impulses involve the opening and closing of ion channels. These are selectively permeable, water-filled molecular tunnels that pass through the cell membrane and allow ions — electrically charged atoms — or small molecules to enter or leave the cell. Neurons and Memory. Whenever I read about someone diagnosed with Alzheimers who apparently goes in and out of the memory problems it makes me wonder how carefully they were diagnosed.

There is a kind of simple partial seizure that mimics Alzheimers called a jamais vu. Mirror Neurons. In the early 1990s, Italian researchers made an astonishing and quite unexpected discovery. Complexity of single neurons? Physics Forums. Neurotransmitters: How Brain Cells Use Chemicals to Communicate. Glia: the Other Brain Cells. After legendary genius Albert Einstein died in 1955, his brain was removed from his body and placed in a jar of formaldehyde. For the next 30 years, scientists examined small slices of his brain, hoping to uncover clues to the great man’s genius. Most people expected that Einstein’s brain would be larger than average. Mystery of the Human Brain's Glia Cells Solved. Mapping Brain Circuits. Brain Evolution: Neurogenomics Targets the Genes That Make Us Human. The Human Brain Atlas at Michigan State University. Did a Copying Mistake Build Man's Brain? Brain Scans Show Who You're Thinking About. The Invisible Hand Illusion.

Brain damage can make people immune to the gambler’s fallacy. Sex or Attachment: Why Do We Fall in Love, Really? By Bonnie Williams. Allen Brain Atlas: Human Brain. Debunked: Memory-Molecule Theory. Scientists Cast Light Onto Roots of Illness Deep in the Brain. Spurious Positive Mapping of the Brain? Brain scan breakthrough show researches just what you're thinking about and could lead to treatment for disorders like autism.

How to Make Your Own Evil Twin. Researchers map Phineas Gage's pierced brain. How the Brain Creates and Uses Personality Models to Predict Behavior. The brain's emergency response call. Vaughan Bell: the trouble with brain scans. Brain Not Required For Antidepressant To Act. Brain Cells Know Which Way You'll Bet. A surprise makes memories wobbly. Brainbow: See the brain in different lights.

Paralyzed Patient Swills Coffee by Issuing Thought Commands to a Robot. Been Thinking of Somebody? Brain Researchers Know Who. Neurons never forget a face. The Brain May Disassemble Itself in Sleep. Is There a Difference between the Brain of an Atheist and the Brain of a Religious Person? Why is it Impossible to Stop Thinking, to Render the Mind a Complete Blank?

Buff Your Brain. The Split Brain Experiments : Games from Nobelprize.org. Brain and Behavior Student Site. Why we forget. Slacker or go-getter? Brain chemical may tell. Solving the 'Cocktail Party Problem'