Socrates and Socratic Questioning
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Socrates ( pron.: / ˈ s ɒ k r ə t iː z / ; Greek : Σωκράτης , Ancient Greek pronunciation: [sɔːkrátɛːs] , Sōkrátēs ; c. 469 BC – 399 BC) [ 1 ] was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher . Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy , he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon , and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes . Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity. [ 2 ]
The Socratic method (also known as method of elenchus , elenctic method, Socratic irony , or Socratic debate ), named after the classical Greek philosopher Socrates , is a form of inquiry and debate between individuals with opposing viewpoints based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to illuminate ideas. It is a dialectical method, often involving an oppositional discussion in which the defence of one point of view is pitted against the defence of another; one participant may lead another to contradict himself in some way, thus strengthening the inquirer's own point. The Socratic method is a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions.
Socratic questioning is disciplined questioning that can be used to pursue thought in many directions and for many purposes, including: to explore complex ideas, to get to the truth of things, to open up issues and problems, to uncover assumptions, to analyze concepts, to distinguish what we know from what we don't know, to follow out logical implications of thought, or to control the discussion. The key to distinguishing Socratic questioning from questioning per se is that Socratic questioning is systematic, disciplined, and deep, and usually focuses on fundamental concepts, principles, theories, issues, or problems. Socratic questioning is referred to in teaching , and has gained currency as a concept in education particularly in the past two decades. [ citation needed ] Teachers, students, or indeed anyone interested in probing thinking at a deep level can and should construct Socratic questions and engage in these questions. [ 1 ]
Techniques > Questioning > Socratic Questions Conceptual | Assumptions | Rationale | Viewpoint | Implications | Question | See also Socrates was one of the greatest educators who taught by asking questions and thus drawing out answers from his pupils ('ex duco', means to 'lead out', which is the root of 'education'). Sadly, he martyred himself by drinking hemlock rather than compromise his principles.
One of the reasons that instructors tend to overemphasize “coverage” over “engaged thinking” is that they do not fully appreciate the role of questions in teaching content. Consequently, they assume that answers can be taught separate from questions. Indeed, so buried are questions in established instruction that the fact that all assertions — all statements that this or that is so — are implicit answers to questions is virtually never recognized. For example, the statement that water boils at 100 degrees centigrade is an answer to the question “At what temperature centigrade does water boil?” Hence every declarative statement in the textbook is an answer to a question. Hence, every textbook could be rewritten in the interrogative mode by translating every statement into a question.
Discourse on critical thinking for teachers and educators in all grade levels and in all societies. This channel contains video footage, interviews and clips from the Foundation for Critical Thinking on topics ranging from Critical Thinking and Educational Reform, Ethical Reasoning, Socratic Questioning, Oxford Tutorial Method, Analysis and Assessment of Thinking... etc. to their applications across and within all professional fields and domains of thought. More in-depth video from various events are available to members of the Critical Thinking Community at www.criticalthinking.org Discourse on critical thinking for teachers and educators in all grade levels and in all societies. This channel contains video footage, interviews and clips from the Foundation for Critical Thinking on topics ranging from Critical Thinking and Ed... <p style="text-align:right;color:#A8A8A8"></p>
What do you mean by ____? What is your main point? How does _____ relate to _____? Could you put that another way?