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Alan Mathison Turing , OBE , FRS ( pron.: / ˈ tj ʊər ɪ ŋ / TEWR -ing ; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954), was a British mathematician , logician , cryptanalyst , and computer scientist . He was highly influential in the development of computer science , giving a formalisation of the concepts of " algorithm " and " computation " with the Turing machine , which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] Turing is widely considered to be the father of computer science and artificial intelligence . [ 5 ] During World War II , Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park , Britain's codebreaking centre. For a time he was head of Hut 8 , the section responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. He devised a number of techniques for breaking German ciphers , including the method of the bombe , an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine .
This is the online version of The C Book , second edition by Mike Banahan, Declan Brady and Mark Doran, originally published by Addison Wesley in 1991. This version is made freely available . While this book is no longer in print, its content is still very relevant today. The C language is still popular, particularly for open source software and embedded programming . We hope this book will be useful, or at least interesting, to people who use C. If you have any comments about this book, or if you find any bugs in its presentation, please send a message to email@example.com .
Hadrian ( Latin : Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] 24 January, 76 AD – 10 July, 138 AD), was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. He is best known for building Hadrian's Wall , which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain . In Rome, he re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma . In addition to being emperor, Hadrian was a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He was the third of the Five Good Emperors . Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus to an ethnically Italian family, either in Italica near Seville (in modern-day Spain ) or in Rome.
Artificial Intelligence ( AI ), a branch of computer science , is the study of intelligent systems (i.e. software, computers, robots, etc.). Alternatively, it may be defined as "the study and design of intelligent agents", [ 1 ] where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. [ 2 ] John McCarthy , who coined the term in 1955, [ 3 ] defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". [ 4 ] AI research is highly technical and specialised, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. [ 5 ] Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues.