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Artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis , stock trading , robot control , law , scientific discovery and toys. However, many AI applications are not perceived as AI: "A lot of cutting edge AI has filtered into general applications, often without being called AI because once something becomes useful enough and common enough it's not labeled AI anymore," Nick Bostrom reports. [ 1 ] "Many thousands of AI applications are deeply embedded in the infrastructure of every industry." the late 90s and early 21st century, AI technology became widely used as elements of larger systems, but the field is rarely credited for these successes. [ edit ] Finance Banks use artificial intelligence systems to organize operations, invest in stocks, and manage properties. In August 2001, robots beat humans in a simulated financial trading competition. [ 4 ]
Artificial consciousness (AC), also known as machine consciousness (MC) or synthetic consciousness , is a field related to artificial intelligence and cognitive robotics whose aim is to define that which would have to be synthesized were consciousness to be found in an engineered artifact ( Aleksander 1995 ). Neuroscience hypothesizes that consciousness is generated by the interoperation of various parts of the brain , called the neural correlates of consciousness or NCC. Proponents of AC believe it is possible to construct machines (e.g., computer systems) that can emulate this NCC interoperation.
On Intelligence: How a New Understanding of the Brain will Lead to the Creation of Truly Intelligent Machines is a book by Palm Pilot -inventor Jeff Hawkins with New York Times science writer Sandra Blakeslee . The book explains Hawkins' memory-prediction framework theory of the brain and describes some of its consequences. (Times Books: 2004, ISBN 0-8050-7456-2 )
This book is what sparked my interest in AI. Read this if you want to get enthusiastic about the coming advances in AI technology! by Dec 8
Research & Projects
Virtual worlds are the golden path to achieving Artificial General Intelligence and positive Singularity, Dr Ben Goertzel’s, CEO of Novamente LLC and author of “ The Hidden Pattern: A Patternist Philosophy of Mind” explained in his presentation “Artificial General Intelligence in Virtual Worlds” given at the Singularity Summit 2007 earlier this month. According to Goertzel, Singularity is no longer a far future idea. About a year ago Goertzel gave a talk “Ten Years to a Positive Singularity — If We Really, Really Try.”
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence: Artificial intelligence (AI) – branch of computer science that deals with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation in machines . Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior.
Autonomic computing refers to the self-managing characteristics of distributed computing resources, adapting to unpredictable changes while hiding intrinsic complexity to operators and users. Started by IBM in 2001, this initiative ultimately aims to develop computer systems capable of self-management , to overcome the rapidly growing complexity of computing systems management , and to reduce the barrier that complexity poses to further growth. The system makes decisions on its own, using high-level policies; it will constantly check and optimize its status and automatically adapt itself to changing conditions.
An autonomous agent is an intelligent agent operating on an owner's behalf but without any interference of that ownership entity. An intelligent agent , however appears according to a multiply cited statement in a no longer accessible IBM white paper as follows: Intelligent agents are software entities that carry out some set of operations on behalf of a user or another program with some degree of independence or autonomy, and in so doing, employ some knowledge or representation of the user's goals or desires.
Hierarchical temporal memory (HTM) is a machine learning model developed by Jeff Hawkins and Dileep George of Numenta, Inc. that models some of the structural and algorithmic properties of the neocortex . HTM is a biomimetic model based on the memory-prediction theory of brain function described by Jeff Hawkins in his book On Intelligence . HTM is a method for discovering and inferring the high-level causes of observed input patterns and sequences, thus building an increasingly complex model of the world. Jeff Hawkins states that HTM does not present any new idea or theory, but combines existing ideas to mimic the neocortex with a simple design that provides a large range of capabilities. HTM combines and extends approaches used in Bayesian networks , spatial and temporal clustering algorithms, while using a tree-shaped hierarchy of nodes that is common in neural networks .
An extended conversation with the legendary linguist Graham Gordon Ramsay If one were to rank a list of civilization's greatest and most elusive intellectual challenges, the problem of "decoding" ourselves -- understanding the inner workings of our minds and our brains, and how the architecture of these elements is encoded in our genome -- would surely be at the top.
We've completed a functional (and much better) version of our .NET-based Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) engines (great job Rob). We're also still working on an HTM based robotic behavioral framework (and our 1st quarter goal -- yikes - we're late). Also, we are NOT using Numenta's recently released run-time and/or code... since we're professional .NET consultants/developers, we decided to author our own implementation from initial prototypes authored over the summer of 2006 during an infamous sabbatical -- please don't ask about the "Hammer" stories. I've been feeling that the team has not been in synch in terms of HTM concepts, theory and implementation. We decided to spend the last couple of meetings purely focused on discussions concerning HTMs. This has resulted in a new HTM based initiative (in line with our charter) that utilizes HTMs as the basis of chess playing game engine and in the team rededicating itself to gain deeper insights into HTM-based networks and AIs.
Evolvable hardware (EH) is a new field about the use of evolutionary algorithms (EA) to create specialized electronics without manual engineering. It brings together reconfigurable hardware, artificial intelligence , fault tolerance and autonomous systems . Evolvable hardware refers to hardware that can change its architecture and behavior dynamically and autonomously by interacting with its environment. [ edit ] Introduction In its most fundamental form an evolutionary algorithm manipulates a population of individuals where each individual describes how to construct a candidate circuit. Each circuit is assigned a fitness , which indicates how well a candidate circuit satisfies the design specification.
Hugo de Garis (born 1947, Sydney, Australia) is a researcher in the sub-field of artificial intelligence (AI) known as evolvable hardware . He became known in the 1990s for his research on the use of genetic algorithms to evolve neural networks using three dimensional cellular automata inside field programmable gate arrays . He claimed that this approach would enable the creation of what he terms "artificial brains" which would quickly surpass human levels of intelligence . [ 1 ] He has more recently been noted for his belief that a major war between the supporters and opponents of intelligent machines, resulting in billions of deaths, is almost inevitable before the end of the 21st century. [ 2 ] :234 He suggests AIs may simply eliminate the human race, and humans would be powerless to stop them because of technological singularity .
Automates Intelligents: Introduction au livre "Un modèle constructible de système psychique, par Jean-Paul Baquiast et Christophe Jacquemin23 janvier 2011 par Jean-Paul Baquiast et Christophe Jacquemin Introduction à la lecture de l'ouvrage d'Alain Cardon «Un modèle constructible de système psychique» Les «processus coactivés» et la nouvelle maîtrise du monde Par Jean-Paul Baquiast et Christophe Jacquemin - 23/01/2011
For John Searle 's Strong AI hypothesis, see Philosophy of artificial intelligence Strong AI is artificial intelligence that matches or exceeds human intelligence — the intelligence of a machine that can successfully perform any intellectual task that a human being can. [ 1 ] It is a primary goal of artificial intelligence research and an important topic for science fiction writers and futurists . Strong AI is also referred to as " artificial general intelligence " or as the ability to perform "general intelligent action." [ 3 ] Strong AI is associated with traits such as consciousness , sentience , sapience and self-awareness observed in living beings. Some references emphasize a distinction between strong AI and "applied AI" [ 4 ] (also called "narrow AI" [ 1 ] or " weak AI " [ 5 ] ): the use of software to study or accomplish specific problem solving or reasoning tasks.
Bionics (also known as biomimicry , biomimetics , bio-inspiration , biognosis , and close to bionical creativity engineering ) is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology . [ citation needed ] The word bionic was coined by Jack E. Steele in 1958, possibly originating from the technical term bion (pronounced bee-on ) (from Ancient Greek : βίος ), meaning 'unit of life ' and the suffix -ic , meaning 'like' or 'in the manner of', hence 'like life'. Some dictionaries, however, explain the word as being formed as a portmanteau from bio logy + electro nics . It was popularized by the 1970s television series The Six Million Dollar Man and The Bionic Woman , which were based upon the novel Cyborg by Martin Caidin , which was influenced by Steele's work, and feature humans given superhuman powers by electromechanical implants.
What is A.I ?...