The Chaldean Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II. Archaeologists unearth Babylonian treasures. By Khalid al-Ansary BAGHDAD Wed Apr 1, 2009 5:46pm BST BAGHDAD (Reuters) - Iraqi archaeologists have discovered 4,000 artefacts mostly from ancient Babylonian times, including royal seals, talismans and clay tablets marked in Sumerian cuneiform -- the earliest known form of writing.
The treasures came to light, the Tourism and Antiquities Ministry said on Wednesday, after two years of excavations across 20 different sites in the regions between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the land ancient Greeks referred to as "Mesopotamia. " As well as Babylonian artefacts, there were finds from the ancient Persian empire and more recent medieval Islamic cities. "The results of this excavation are evidence that Iraq's antiquities aren't going to run out any time soon," Abdul-Zahra al-Telagani, spokesman for the Tourism and Antiquities Ministry, said. "They also give us the incentive to continue to work to rehabilitate our ancient sites to become tourist attractions. " All About the Babylonian Gods. Written by: ContessaD • edited by: Noreen Gunnell • updated: 1/5/2012 A lot of myths and legends surround Babylonian gods. Most of these tales are replicated in the religious beliefs of other ancient civilizations, like the Greeks and the Romans.
Many modern literary works were even based on the colorful exploits of these gods. What Gave Rise to Polytheism? The name of the ancient city of Babylon means the gate of gods, itself one firm indication why there are many Babylonian gods. The Babylonian Legends of Creation: The Seven Tablets of Creation. Description of Their Contents. Sacred Texts Ancient Near East Index Previous Next The Babylonian Legends of Creation, by E.
A. Wallis Budge, , at sacred-texts.com In the beginning nothing whatever existed except APSÛ, which may be described as a boundless, confused and disordered mass of watery matter; how it came into being is unknown. Out of this mass there were evolved two orders of beings, namely, demons and gods. The demons had hideous forms, even as Berosus said, which were part animal, part bird, part reptile and part human. And LAKHAMU . Click to enlargeTerra-cotta figure of a Babylonian Demon. After countless aeons had passed the gods ANSHAR and KISHAR came into being; the former represents the "hosts of heaven," and the latter the "hosts of earth.
" After another long and indefinite period the independent gods of the Babylonian pantheon came into being, e.g., ANU , who is here called NUDIMMUD , and others. Click to enlargeBronze figure of a Babylonian Demon. (al-ka-at) or "order" of the gods. . Who is TAMMUZ. Babylonian Empire definition of Babylonian Empire in the Free Online Encyclopedia. Warning! The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979).
It might be outdated or ideologically biased. an ancient state in southern Mesopotamia (region of present-day Iraq) that arose at the beginning of the second millennium B.C. and finally lost its independence in 539 B.C. It obtained its name from the main city Babylon. In 1894 B.C. a local dynasty of Amorite origin became established in Babylonia, and under King Hammurabi it succeeded in unifying a large part of Mesopotamia and creating a large centralized slave-owning despotic state. In the second half of the 18th century B.C., Babylonia was invaded by foreign enemies, mainly the Kassites, who occupied the entire country in the 16th century. In 626 B.C. the Assyrian vicegerent Nabopolassar (of Chaldean origin) separated from Assyria and proclaimed himself king of Babylonia. Riftin, A. Babylonian brick.
Cunieform Writing - Bill of Sale. This image depicts a Bill of Sale written in cunieform. Now maintained by the Library of Congress, and referred to as "Tablet 34," it was likely created circa 2050 BC (in "Shulgi, year 44"). The Bill of Sale involves transfer of livestock. The Library of Congress tells us more (see "Bill of Sale," tablet 34): Not yet fully translated, but pertains to receipt of livestock. Date states: "Mu Si-mu-ru-um-ki ba-hal" (The year Simurum was destroyed).A cylinder seal has been heavily rolled over the text. The seal impression is illegible. A drawing of the tablet's inscription, and a partial transliteration, is also available for viewing at the Library of Congress. Neo-Babylonian Empire | ancient empire, Asia. Marduk | Babylonian god. Marduk, in Mesopotamian religion, the chief god of the city of Babylon and the national god of Babylonia; as such, he was eventually called simply Bel, or Lord. Originally, he seems to have been a god of thunderstorms.
A poem, known as Enuma elish and dating from the reign of Nebuchadrezzar I (1124–03 bce), relates Marduk’s rise to such preeminence that he was the god of 50 names, each one that of a deity or of a divine attribute. After conquering the monster of primeval chaos, Tiamat, he became Lord of the Gods of Heaven and Earth. All nature, including man, owed its existence to him; the destiny of kingdoms and subjects was in his hands. Marduk’s chief temples at Babylon were the Esagila and the Etemenanki, a ziggurat with a shrine of Marduk on the top. In the Esagila the poem Enuma elish was recited every year at the New Year festival.
Marduk was later known as Bel, a name derived from the Semitic word baal, or “lord.” Babylonians. The city of Babylon on the River Euphrates in southern Iraq first came to prominence as the royal city of king Hammurabi (about 1790-1750 BC). He established his control over many other kingdoms stretching from the Persian Gulf to Syria. The British Museum holds one of the iconic artworks of this period, the so-called “Queen of the Night”. From around 1500 BC a dynasty of Kassite kings took control in Babylon and unified southern Iraq into the kingdom of Babylonia. The Babylonian cities were the centres of great scribal learning and produced writings on divination, astrology, medicine and mathematics. Babylonia had an uneasy relationship with its northern neighbour Assyria and opposed its military expansion. After 612 BC the Babylonian kings Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar II were able to claim much of the Assyrian empire and rebuilt Babylon on a grand scale.
Ishtar - Babylonian Goddess. Timeline of Events in Ancient Babylonia. Code of Hammurabi | Babylonian laws. Code of Hammurabi, the most complete and perfect extant collection of Babylonian laws, developed during the reign of Hammurabi (1792–1750 bc) of the 1st dynasty of Babylon. It consists of his legal decisions that were collected toward the end of his reign and inscribed on a diorite stela set up in Babylon’s temple of Marduk, the national god of Babylonia. These 282 case laws include economic provisions (prices, tariffs, trade, and commerce), family law (marriage and divorce), as well as criminal law (assault, theft) and civil law (slavery, debt). Penalties varied according to the status of the offenders and the circumstances of ... (100 of 270 words) <ul><li><a href="/EBchecked/media/99581/Diorite-stela-inscribed-with-the-Code-of-Hammurabi-18th-century?
TopicId=253710"><img src=" alt="Hammurabi, Code of: inscribed stela" /><span>Diorite stela inscribed with the Code of Hammurabi, 18th century <em>bce</em>. Babylonian numerals. Version for printing The Babylonian civilisation in Mesopotamia replaced the Sumerian civilisation and the Akkadian civilisation. We give a little historical background to these events in our article Babylonian mathematics. Certainly in terms of their number system the Babylonians inherited ideas from the Sumerians and from the Akkadians. From the number systems of these earlier peoples came the base of 60, that is the sexagesimal system. Yet neither the Sumerian nor the Akkadian system was a positional system and this advance by the Babylonians was undoubtedly their greatest achievement in terms of developing the number system.
Some would argue that it was their biggest achievement in mathematics. Often when told that the Babylonian number system was base 60 people's first reaction is: what a lot of special number symbols they must have had to learn. Now although the Babylonian system was a positional base 60 system, it had some vestiges of a base 10 system within it. The Talmud. Sacred-Texts Judaism Buy CD-ROM Buy books about Judaism Translated by Michael L. Rodkinson Book 1: Tract SabbathBook 2: Tracts Erubin, Shekalim, Rosh HashanaBook 3: Tracts Pesachim, Yomah and HagigaBook 4: Tracts Betzh, Succah, Moed Katan, Taanith, Megilla and Ebel Rabbathi or SemahothBook 5: Tracts Aboth, Derech Eretz-Rabba, Derech Eretz-Zuta, and Baba Kama (First Gate)Book 6: Tract Baba Kama (First Gate), Part II and Tract Baba Metzia (Middle Gate)Book 7: Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate)Book 8: Tract Sanhedrin: Section Jurisprudence (Damages)Book 9: Tracts Maccoth, Shebuoth, Eduyoth, Abuda Zara, and HoriothBook 10: History of the Talmud A search for Talmud at Google will turn up hundreds of thousands of hits, a depressing number of which are to anti-Semitic sites.
Rodkinsons' ten-book edition, the only extensive one currently in the public domain, contains complete translations of the 'Festivals' and 'Jurisprudence' sections of the Talmud. The Chaldean Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II.