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Simplified view of a feedforward artificial neural network The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of biological neurons . [ 1 ] The modern usage of the term often refers to artificial neural networks , which are composed of artificial neurons or nodes. Thus the term may refer to either biological neural networks are made up of real biological neurons or artificial neural networks for solving artificial intelligence problems. Unlike von Neumann model computations, artificial neural networks do not separate memory and processing and operate via the flow of signals through the net connections, somewhat akin to biological networks.
In machine learning , support vector machines ( SVMs , also support vector networks [ 1 ] ) are supervised learning models with associated learning algorithms that analyze data and recognize patterns, used for classification and regression analysis . The basic SVM takes a set of input data and predicts, for each given input, which of two possible classes forms the output, making it a non- probabilistic binary linear classifier . Given a set of training examples, each marked as belonging to one of two categories, a SVM training algorithm builds a model that assigns new examples into one category or the other. A SVM model is a representation of the examples as points in space, mapped so that the examples of the separate categories are divided by a clear gap that is as wide as possible. New examples are then mapped into that same space and predicted to belong to a category based on which side of the gap they fall on.
Computational designers in architecture (and grasshopper dilettantes such as myself) love to (over)use genetic algorithms in everyday work. Genetic algorithms (or GAs, as the cool kids call them) are a particularly fancy method for optimization that work as a kind of analogy to the genetic process in real life. The parameters you're optimizing for get put into a kind of simulated chromosome and then a series of generated genotypes slowly evolve into something that more closely fits the solution you're looking for, with simulated crossover and mutation to help make sure you're getting closer to a global optimum than a local one. For those that don't regularly optimize (I know I should more often, but it's so much easier to just sit on the couch and vegetate), the imagery that gets used is of a "fitness landscape" where you're looking for the highest peak or the lowest valley, which represents the best solution to a problem: