Embeded-Systems. Chap14. Jitter. Jitter can be quantified in the same terms as all time-varying signals, e.g., RMS, or peak-to-peak displacement.
Also like other time-varying signals, jitter can be expressed in terms of spectral density (frequency content). Jitter period is the interval between two times of maximum effect (or minimum effect) of a signal characteristic that varies regularly with time. Jitter frequency, the more commonly quoted figure, is its inverse. ITU-T G.810 classifies jitter frequencies below 10 Hz as wander and frequencies at or above 10 Hz as jitter.
Avionics-Protocols. Control-Systems. EIA : Electronic Industries Alliance. Solid state relay. A solid-state relay (SSR) is an electronic switching device that switches states when an external voltage is applied along its n-type and p-type junctions.
SSR has a small control signal that controls a larger load current or voltage. It consists of a sensor which responds to an appropriate input (control signal), a solid-state electronic switching device which switches power to the load circuitry, and some coupling mechanism to enable the control signal to activate this switch without mechanical parts. The relay may be designed to switch either AC or DC to the load. It serves the same function as an electromechanical relay, but has no moving parts. Opto-isolator. Schematic diagram of an opto-isolator showing source of light (LED) on the left, dielectric barrier in the center, and sensor (phototransistor) on the right.
[note 1] In electronics, an opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is a component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using light. Opto-isolators prevent high voltages from affecting the system receiving the signal. Commercially available opto-isolators withstand input-to-output voltages up to 10 kV and voltage transients with speeds up to 10 kV/μs. History The value of optically coupling a solid state light emitter to a semiconductor detector for the purpose of electrical isolation was recognized in 1963 by Akmenkalns,et al.
Current mode logic. Current-mode logic is also an alternate name for Emitter-coupled logic.
Current mode logic (CML), or source-coupled logic (SCL), is a differential digital logic family intended to transmit data at speeds between 312.5 Mbit/s and 3.125 Gbit/s across standard printed circuit boards. CML termination scheme The transmission is point-to-point, unidirectional, and is usually terminated at the destination with 50 Ω resistors to Vcc on both differential lines. CML is frequently used in interfaces to fiber optic components. CML signals have also been found useful for connections between modules. Differential signaling. Elimination of noise by using differential signaling.
Advantages Tolerance of ground offsets In a system with a differential receiver, desired signals add and noise is subtracted away. Suitability for use with low-voltage electronics PCI Express. PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially abbreviated as PCIe, is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards.
PCIe has numerous improvements over the aforementioned bus standards, including higher maximum system bus throughput, lower I/O pin count and smaller physical footprint, better performance-scaling for bus devices, a more detailed error detection and reporting mechanism (Advanced Error Reporting (AER)), and native hot-plug functionality. More recent revisions of the PCIe standard support hardware I/O virtualization. Cyclic redundancy check. A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an error-detecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to raw data.
Blocks of data entering these systems get a short check value attached, based on the remainder of a polynomial division of their contents; on retrieval the calculation is repeated, and corrective action can be taken against presumed data corruption if the check values do not match. The CRC was invented by W. Wesley Peterson in 1961; the 32-bit CRC function of Ethernet and many other standards is the work of several researchers and was published during 1975. Introduction CRCs are based on the theory of cyclic error-correcting codes. 1707.pdf (application/pdf Object) Snubber Circuit Design Calculators. Snubber Circuit Design Calculators See our other Electronics Calculators.
Driving inductive loads with transistor switches, whether they be flyback transformers, relays or motors often result in the high voltage resonant spikes when the coils are interrupted from their current current source by the transistor.
Instructive-Reading. Baud. Where fs is the symbol rate.
There is also a chance of miscommunication which leads to ambiguity. A simple example: A baud of 1 kBd = 1,000 Bd is synonymous to a symbol rate of 1,000 symbols per second. In case of a modem, this corresponds to 1,000 tones per second, and in case of a line code, this corresponds to 1,000 pulses per second. The symbol duration time is 1/1,000 second = 1 millisecond. In digital systems (i.e., using discrete/discontinuous values) with binary code, 1 Bd = 1 bit/s. FOMIS_Datasheet_WEB.pdf (application/pdf Object) FADEC. Full authority digital engine (or electronics) control (FADEC) is a system consisting of digital computer, called an electronic engine controller (EEC) or engine control unit (ECU), and its related accessories that control all aspects of aircraft engine performance.
FADECs have been produced for both piston engines and jet engines. FADEC for piston engine. JPEG. Continuously varied JPEG compression (between Q=100 and Q=1) for an abdominalCT scan. In computing, JPEG (/ˈdʒeɪpɛɡ/ JAY-peg) (seen most often with the .jpg extension) is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography. The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image quality. JPEG typically achieves 10:1 compression with little perceptible loss in image quality.  Ownersmanual.pdf (application/pdf Object) Low-voltage differential signaling. Low-voltage differential signaling, or LVDS, also known as TIA/EIA-644, is a technical standard that specifies electrical characteristics of a differential, serial communication protocol.
LVDS operates at low power and can run at very high speeds using inexpensive twisted-pair copper cables. Since LVDS is a physical layer specification only, many data communication standards and applications use it but then add a data link layer as defined in the OSI model on top of it. LVDS was introduced in 1994, and has become popular in products such as LCD-TVs, automotive infotainment systems, industrial cameras and machine vision, notebook and tablet computers, and communications systems. The typical applications are high-speed video, graphics, video camera data transfers, and general purpose computer buses. Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter. A universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter, abbreviated UART /ˈjuːɑrt/, is a piece of computer hardware that translates data between parallel and serial forms.
UARTs are commonly used in conjunction with communication standards such as EIA, RS-232, RS-422 or RS-485. The universal designation indicates that the data format and transmission speeds are configurable. The electric signaling levels and methods (such as differential signaling etc.) are handled by a driver circuit external to the UART.
Programing. Free Symbolic Computing Interactive Kit Offer - Symbolic Math DESC. Symbolic Math Toolbox enables you to find analytical solutions to your technical problems by applying fundamental math, engineering, and scientific principles. Whether you are developing algorithms, modeling engineering systems, or teaching or learning mathematical concepts, symbolic computing can offer advantages in both efficiency and transparency of solutions when compared with purely numeric approaches. Complete this form for technical resources that show how you can manage your symbolic computations in the toolbox’s notebook interface, and how symbolic results can be integrated with MATLAB. Recorded presentations.
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Instructive-Reading. Mathematical-Tools. DSPRelated.com. Scientific-Tools. Manchester Data Encoding for Radio Communications. Abstract: Manchester encoding has gained wide acceptance as the modulation scheme for low-cost radio-frequency transmission of digital data. This form of binary phase-shift keying is a simple method for encoding digital serial data of arbitrary bit patterns without any long strings of continuous zeros or ones, and having the encoding clock rate embedded within the transmitted data. Manchester encoding is a form of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) that has gained wide acceptance as the modulation scheme for low-cost radio-frequency (RF) transmission of digital data. Manchester is a simple method for encoding digital serial data of arbitrary bit patterns without having any long strings of continuous zeros or ones, and having the encoding clock rate embedded within the transmitted data.
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