Jitter is the undesired deviation from true periodicity of an assumed periodic signal in electronics and telecommunications, often in relation to a reference clock source. Jitter may be observed in characteristics such as the frequency of successive pulses, the signal amplitude, or phase of periodic signals. Jitter is a significant, and usually undesired, factor in the design of almost all communications links (e.g., USB, PCI-e, SATA, OC-48). In clock recovery applications it is called timing jitter. Jitter can be quantified in the same terms as all time-varying signals, e.g., RMS, or peak-to-peak displacement. Jitter
EIA : Electronic Industries Alliance
A solid-state relay (SSR) is an electronic switching device in which a small control signal controls a larger load current or voltage. It consists of a sensor which responds to an appropriate input (control signal), a solid-state electronic switching device which switches power to the load circuitry, and some coupling mechanism to enable the control signal to activate this switch without mechanical parts. The relay may be designed to switch either AC or DC to the load. It serves the same function as an electromechanical relay, but has no moving parts. Coupling Solid state relay
Schematic diagram of an opto-isolator showing source of light (LED) on the left, dielectric barrier in the center, and sensor (phototransistor) on the right.[note 1] In electronics, an opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is a component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using light. Opto-isolators prevent high voltages from affecting the system receiving the signal. Commercially available opto-isolators withstand input-to-output voltages up to 10 kV and voltage transients with speeds up to 10 kV/μs. A common type of opto-isolator consists of an LED and a phototransistor in the same package. Opto-isolators are usually used for transmission of digital (on/off) signals, but some techniques allow use with analog (proportional) signals. History Opto-isolator
Current-mode logic is also an alternate name for Emitter-coupled logic. Current mode logic (CML), or source-coupled logic (SCL), is a differential digital logic family intended to transmit data at speeds between 312.5 Mbit/s and 3.125 Gbit/s across standard printed circuit boards. Current mode logic
Elimination of noise by using differential signaling. Advantages Tolerance of ground offsets In a system with a differential receiver, desired signals add and noise is subtracted away. Suitability for use with low-voltage electronics Differential signaling
PCI Express PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially abbreviated as PCIe, is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards. PCIe has numerous improvements over the aforementioned bus standards, including higher maximum system bus throughput, lower I/O pin count and smaller physical footprint, better performance-scaling for bus devices, a more detailed error detection and reporting mechanism (Advanced Error Reporting (AER)), and native hot-plug functionality. More recent revisions of the PCIe standard support hardware I/O virtualization.
A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an error-detecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to raw data. Blocks of data entering these systems get a short check value attached, based on the remainder of a polynomial division of their contents; on retrieval the calculation is repeated, and corrective action can be taken against presumed data corruption if the check values do not match. Introduction CRCs are based on the theory of cyclic error-correcting codes. The use of systematic cyclic codes, which encode messages by adding a fixed-length check value, for the purpose of error detection in communication networks, was first proposed by W. Wesley Peterson during 1961. Cyclic codes are not only simple to implement but have the benefit of being particularly well suited for the detection of burst errors, contiguous sequences of erroneous data symbols in messages. Cyclic redundancy check
Snubber Circuit Design Calculators Snubber Circuit Design Calculators See our other Electronics Calculators. Driving inductive loads with transistor switches, whether they be flyback transformers, relays or motors often result in the high voltage resonant spikes when the coils are interrupted from their current current source by the transistor.
where fs is the symbol rate. There is also a chance of miscommunication which leads to ambiguity. A simple example: A baud of 1 kBd = 1,000 Bd is synonymous to a symbol rate of 1,000 symbols per second. In case of a modem, this corresponds to 1,000 tones per second, and in case of a line code, this corresponds to 1,000 pulses per second. The symbol duration time is 1/1,000 second = 1 millisecond. In digital systems (i.e., using discrete/discontinuous values) with binary code, 1 Bd = 1 bit/s. Baud
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FADEC Full authority digital engine (or electronics) control (FADEC) is a system consisting of digital computer, called an electronic engine controller (EEC) or engine control unit (ECU), and its related accessories that control all aspects of aircraft engine performance. FADECs have been produced for both piston engines and jet engines. FADEC consist of HMU,Sensor and EEC.
Continuously varied JPEG compression (between Q=100 and Q=1) for an abdominalCT scan. In computing, JPEG - named after its creator the Joint Photographic Experts Group - (/ˈdʒeɪpɛɡ/ JAY-peg) (seen most often with the .jpg extension) is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital photography (i.e. images). The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image quality. JPEG typically achieves 10:1 compression with little perceptible loss in image quality, and is the file type most often produced in digital photography. JPEG compression is used in a number of image file formats. JPEG
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Low-voltage differential signaling, or LVDS, also known as TIA/EIA-644, is a technical standard that specifies electrical characteristics of a differential, serial communication protocol. LVDS operates at low power and can run at very high speeds using inexpensive twisted-pair copper cables. Since LVDS is a physical layer specification only, many data communication standards and applications use it but then add a data link layer as defined in the OSI model on top of it. LVDS was introduced in 1994, and has become popular in products such as LCD-TVs, automotive infotainment systems, industrial cameras and machine vision, notebook and tablet computers, and communications systems. The typical applications are high-speed video, graphics, video camera data transfers, and general purpose computer buses. Low-voltage differential signaling
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter A Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter, abbreviated UART /ˈjuːɑrt/, is a piece of computer hardware that translates data between parallel and serial forms. UARTs are commonly used in conjunction with communication standards such as EIA, RS-232, RS-422 or RS-485. The universal designation indicates that the data format and transmission speeds are configurable. The electric signaling levels and methods (such as differential signaling etc.) are handled by a driver circuit external to the UART.
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Manchester Data Encoding for Radio Communications Abstract: Manchester encoding has gained wide acceptance as the modulation scheme for low-cost radio-frequency transmission of digital data. This form of binary phase-shift keying is a simple method for encoding digital serial data of arbitrary bit patterns without any long strings of continuous zeros or ones, and having the encoding clock rate embedded within the transmitted data. Manchester encoding is a form of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) that has gained wide acceptance as the modulation scheme for low-cost radio-frequency (RF) transmission of digital data. Manchester is a simple method for encoding digital serial data of arbitrary bit patterns without having any long strings of continuous zeros or ones, and having the encoding clock rate embedded within the transmitted data.
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