Psychedelic Research Around the World
Animals on Psychedelics: Survival of the Trippiest There's a recent article in the Pharmaceutical Journal by Andrew Haynes that talks about the widespread use of psychedelics in the animal kingdom. Haynes' argument for explaining this behavior rests on the idea of boredom-—literally bored animals are seeking pharmacological stimulation, much in the same way that bored humans seek pharmaceutical stimulation—but there might be something else going on. Since I cover this same topic in my latest book, "A Small Furry Prayer," rather than try to rewrite the material, I'm offering the following excerpt as a deeper explanation for the origins of the phenomena: "In his 1983 book, From Chocolate to Morphine, University of Arizona physician Andrew Weil points out that children spin in circles to change their consciousness, while adults do the same thing with booze and drugs . So instinctive does this behavior appear that, Weil suspected, perhaps humans aren't the first species to actively pursue altered states .
Psychedelic Research Papers
A group of peyotes, in cultivation. Peyote has been used in ritual contexts for thousands of years. With the advent of organic chemistry, there now exist many synthetic drugs with similar psychoactive properties, many derived from these plants. Many pure active compounds with psychoactive properties have been isolated from these organisms and chemically synthesized, including mescaline, psilocybin, DMT, salvinorin A, ibogaine, ergine, and muscimol, respectively.
A list of plants that are used as hallucinogens. Some of them have been used for thousands of years for religious purposes. The plants are listed according to the substances they contain. List of psychedelic plants
List of entheogens
Declassified MKUltra documents Project MKUltra is the code name of a U.S. government human research operation experimenting in the behavioral engineering of humans through the CIA's Scientific Intelligence Division. The program began in the early 1950s, was officially sanctioned in 1953, was reduced in scope in 1964, further curtailed in 1967 and officially halted in 1973. The program engaged in many illegal activities; in particular it used unwitting U.S. and Canadian citizens as its test subjects, which led to controversy regarding its legitimacy.(p74) MKUltra used numerous methodologies to manipulate people's mental states and alter brain functions, including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation, verbal and sexual abuse, as well as various forms of torture.
The Free-energy Principle
Council on Spiritual Practices - Hopkins/CSP Psilocybin Research Psilocybin Research RR Griffiths, WA Richards, U McCann, R Jesse. 2006. "Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance." Psychopharmacology (Berl). 187(3), 268-83, commentaries 284-292. 2006 Hopkins/CSP psilocybin paper here; the journal's editorial and commentaries here; press release here; Q&A here.
This actually raises several questions... 1. Where did they get the drugs to begin with? And how do you go about getting "permission" from the government (which I assume they had) to conduct these experiments? I can't fathom it's easy to get shrooms in Britain (since Nutt is British and works at a British university, I assume that's where he conducted the experiments). This is what your brain on drugs really looks like
Same here. We evolved along with, and because of, our diet. There weren't any classifications of "illegal drugs" back then, and these things flourish in all sorts of conditions in the wild - it's hard not to imagine at least occasional consumption. Considering mankind's predilection to experimenting with consciousness, along with the unique effects of these substances (including euphoria), it was probably more than occasional.