Psychedelic Research Around the World. Animals on Psychedelics: Survival of the Trippiest. There's a recent article in the Pharmaceutical Journal by Andrew Haynes that talks about the widespread use of psychedelics in the animal kingdom.
Haynes' argument for explaining this behavior rests on the idea of boredom-—literally bored animals are seeking pharmacological stimulation, much in the same way that bored humans seek pharmaceutical stimulation—but there might be something else going on. Since I cover this same topic in my latest book, "A Small Furry Prayer," rather than try to rewrite the material, I'm offering the following excerpt as a deeper explanation for the origins of the phenomena: "In his 1983 book, From Chocolate to Morphine, University of Arizona physician Andrew Weil points out that children spin in circles to change their consciousness, while adults do the same thing with booze and drugs .
So instinctive does this behavior appear that, Weil suspected, perhaps humans aren't the first species to actively pursue altered states . Psychedelic Research Papers. Entheogen. A group of peyotes, in cultivation.
Peyote has been used in ritual contexts for thousands of years. With the advent of organic chemistry, there now exist many synthetic drugs with similar psychoactive properties, many derived from these plants. Many pure active compounds with psychoactive properties have been isolated from these organisms and chemically synthesized, including mescaline, psilocybin, DMT, salvinorin A, ibogaine, ergine, and muscimol, respectively. List of psychedelic plants.
A list of plants that are used as hallucinogens.
Some of them have been used for thousands of years for religious purposes. The plants are listed according to the substances they contain. List of entheogens. Project MKULTRA. Declassified MKUltra documents The scope of Project MKUltra was broad, with research undertaken at 80 institutions, including 44 colleges and universities, as well as hospitals, prisons and pharmaceutical companies. The CIA operated through these institutions using front organizations, although sometimes top officials at these institutions were aware of the CIA's involvement. As the Supreme Court later noted, MKULTRA was: concerned with "the research and development of chemical, biological, and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior.
" The program consisted of some 149 subprojects which the Agency contracted out to various universities, research foundations, and similar institutions. The Free-energy Principle. Council on Spiritual Practices - Hopkins/CSP Psilocybin Research. Psilocybin Research RR Griffiths, WA Richards, U McCann, R Jesse. 2006.
"Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. " Psychopharmacology (Berl). 187(3), 268-83, commentaries 284-292. 2006 Hopkins/CSP psilocybin paper here; the journal's editorial and commentaries here; press release here; Q&A here. This is what your brain on drugs really looks like.
This actually raises several questions... 1.
Where did they get the drugs to begin with? And how do you go about getting "permission" from the government (which I assume they had) to conduct these experiments? I can't fathom it's easy to get shrooms in Britain (since Nutt is British and works at a British university, I assume that's where he conducted the experiments). 10 Scientific and Technological Visionaries Who Experimented With Drugs. Same here.
We evolved along with, and because of, our diet. There weren't any classifications of "illegal drugs" back then, and these things flourish in all sorts of conditions in the wild - it's hard not to imagine at least occasional consumption. Considering mankind's predilection to experimenting with consciousness, along with the unique effects of these substances (including euphoria), it was probably more than occasional.