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Earth system science seeks to integrate various fields of academic study to understand the Earth as a system . It considers interaction between the atmosphere , hydrosphere , lithosphere ( geosphere ), biosphere , [ 1 ] and heliosphere . [ 2 ] In 1996, the American Geophysical Union , in cooperation with the Keck Geology Consortium and with support from five divisions within the National Science Foundation , convened a workshop "to define common educational goals among all disciplines in the Earth sciences." In its report, participants noted that, "The fields that make up the Earth and space sciences are currently undergoing a major advancement that promotes understanding the Earth as a number of interrelated systems."
Ethology (from Greek : ἦθος , ethos , "character"; and -λογία , -logia , "the study of") is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, and is a sub-topic of zoology . The focus of ethology is on animal behaviour under natural conditions, [ 1 ] as opposed to behaviourism , which focuses on behavioural response studies in a laboratory setting. Many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behaviour throughout history. The modern discipline of ethology is generally considered to have begun during the 1930s with the work of Dutch biologist Nikolaas Tinbergen and by Austrian biologists Konrad Lorenz and Karl von Frisch , joint winners of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine . [ 2 ] Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with a strong relation to certain other disciplines such as neuroanatomy , ecology , and evolution .
Clinton Richard Dawkins , FRS , FRSL (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist , evolutionary biologist [ 1 ] and author. He is an emeritus fellow of New College, Oxford , [ 2 ] and was the University of Oxford 's Professor for Public Understanding of Science from 1995 until 2008. [ 3 ] Dawkins came to prominence with his 1976 book The Selfish Gene , which popularised the gene-centred view of evolution and introduced the term meme . In 1982, he introduced into evolutionary biology the influential concept that the phenotypic effects of a gene are not necessarily limited to an organism's body, but can stretch far into the environment, including the bodies of other organisms; this concept is presented in his book The Extended Phenotype . [ 4 ] Dawkins is an atheist , a vice president of the British Humanist Association , and a supporter of the Brights movement . [ 5 ] He is well known for his criticism of creationism and intelligent design .
The study of planetary habitability is partly based upon extrapolation from knowledge of the Earth 's conditions, as the Earth is the only planet currently known to harbour life The Gaia hypothesis , also known as Gaia theory or Gaia principle , proposes that organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a self-regulating , complex system that contributes to maintaining the conditions for life on the planet. Topics of interest include how the biosphere and the evolution of life forms affect the stability of global temperature , ocean salinity , oxygen in the atmosphere and other environmental variables that affect the habitability of Earth.
James Ephraim Lovelock , CH , CBE , FRS , Ph.D (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, environmentalist and futurologist who lives in Devon , England . He is best known for proposing the Gaia hypothesis , which postulates that the biosphere is a self-regulating entity with the capacity to keep our planet healthy by controlling the chemical and physical environment. [ edit ] Biography
Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system . [ 1 ] Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology . However, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry , computer science , engineering , linguistics , mathematics , medicine and allied disciplines , philosophy , physics , and psychology . The term neurobiology is usually used interchangeably with the term neuroscience, although the former refers specifically to the biology of the nervous system, whereas the latter refers to the entire science of the nervous system. The scope of neuroscience has broadened to include different approaches used to study the molecular , cellular , developmental , structural , functional , evolutionary , computational , and medical aspects of the nervous system.
Anatomy of the human brain. Neuroanatomy is the study of the anatomy and stereotyped organization of nervous systems . In contrast to animals with radial symmetry , whose nervous system consists of a distributed network of cells, animals with bilateral symmetry have segregated, defined nervous systems, and thus we can make much more precise statements about their neuroanatomy. In vertebrates , the nervous system is segregated into the internal structure of the brain and spinal cord (together called the central nervous system , or CNS) and the routes of the nerves that connect to the rest of the body (known as the peripheral nervous system , or PNS). The delineation of distinct structures and regions of the nervous system has been critical in investigating how it works. For example, much of what neuroscientists have learned comes from observing how damage or "lesions" to specific brain areas affects behavior or other neural functions.