Solid-State Battery. Zinc–carbon battery. Zinc–carbon batteries of various sizes. Zinc–carbon batteries were the first commercial dry batteries, developed from the technology of the wet Leclanché cell (/lɛklɑːnˈʃeɪ/), and made flashlights and other portable devices possible, because the battery can function in any orientation. They are still useful in low drain or intermittent use devices such as remote controls, flashlights, clocks or transistor radios.
Zinc–carbon dry cells are single-use primary cells, since they are not intended to be recharged. History Old 3V zinc–carbon battery, ca. 1960, with cardboard casing. Improvements include the use of purer grades of manganese dioxide, better sealing, and purer zinc for the negative electrode. Zinc-carbon batteries still account for 20% of all portable batteries in the UK, and 18% in the EU. In Japan they account for only 6% of all primary battery sales, and only 7% of all types of batteries sold in Switzerland. Construction  Anode (marked -) Storage Zinc–carbon battery. Zinc–carbon batteries of various sizes. Zinc–carbon batteries were the first commercial dry batteries, developed from the technology of the wet Leclanché cell (/lɛklɑːnˈʃeɪ/), and made flashlights and other portable devices possible, because the battery can function in any orientation.
They are still useful in low drain or intermittent use devices such as remote controls, flashlights, clocks or transistor radios. Zinc–carbon dry cells are single-use primary cells, since they are not intended to be recharged. History Old 3V zinc–carbon battery, ca. 1960, with cardboard casing. Improvements include the use of purer grades of manganese dioxide, better sealing, and purer zinc for the negative electrode. Zinc-carbon batteries still account for 20% of all portable batteries in the UK, and 18% in the EU. In Japan they account for only 6% of all primary battery sales, and only 7% of all types of batteries sold in Switzerland. Construction  Anode (marked -) Storage Zinc–air battery. Zinc–air hearing aid batteries During discharge, a mass of zinc particles forms a porous anode, which is saturated with an electrolyte.
Oxygen from the air reacts at the cathode and forms hydroxyl ions which migrate into the zinc paste and form zincate (Zn(OH)2− 4), releasing electrons to travel to the cathode. The zincate decays into zinc oxide and water returns to the electrolyte. The water and hydroxyl from the anode are recycled at the cathode, so the water is not consumed. The reactions produce a theoretical 1.65 volts, but this is reduced to 1.35–1.4 V in available cells. Zinc–air batteries have some properties of fuel cells as well as batteries: the zinc is the fuel, the reaction rate can be controlled by varying the air flow, and oxidized zinc/electrolyte paste can be replaced with fresh paste. Possible future applications of this battery include its deployment as an electric vehicle battery and as a utility-scale energy storage system.
History  Storage density Weston cell. Drawing from Edward Weston's US Patent 494827 depicting the standard cell. Chemistry As shown in the illustration, the cell is set up in an H-shaped glass vessel with the cadmium amalgam in one leg and the pure mercury in the other. Electrical connections to the cadmium amalgam and the mercury are made by platinum wires fused through the lower ends of the legs. Anode reaction: Cd(s) → Cd2+(aq) + 2e− Cathode reaction: (Hg+)2SO42−(s) + 2e− → 2Hg(l) + SO42−(aq) Reference cells must be applied in such a way that no current is drawn from them. Characteristics The original design was a saturated cadmium cell producing a convenient 1.018638 Volt reference and had the advantage of having a lower temperature coefficient than the previously used Clark cell. The temperature coefficient can be reduced by shifting to an unsaturated design, the predominant type today. References Literature Practical Electricity by W.
External links Water-activated battery. A water-activated battery is a disposable reserve battery that does not contain an electrolyte and hence produces no voltage until it is soaked in water for several minutes. Description Side-view of water-activated radiosonde battery Radiosonde battery still in protective wrapper Typically, a large variety of aqueous solutions can be used in place of plain water.
This battery type is specifically designed to pollute less (see environmentally friendly claims) due to the lesser use or the absence of heavy metals. Kits using copper-magnesium cells activated by water or the liquid sample itself are also in development. See also References
Silver-oxide battery. A silver-oxide battery (IEC code: S) is a primary cell with a very high energy/weight ratio. Available either in small sizes as button cells (where the amount of silver used is minimal and not a significant contributor to the product cost), or in large custom designed batteries where the superior performance of the silver-oxide chemistry outweighs cost considerations. These larger cells are mostly found in applications for the military, for example in Mark 37 torpedoes or on Alfa-class submarines. In recent years they have become important as reserve batteries for manned and unmanned spacecraft. Spent batteries can be processed to recover their silver content.
Silver-oxide primary batteries account for over 20% of all primary battery sales in Japan (67,000 out of 232,000 in September 2012). A related rechargeable secondary battery usually called a silver–zinc battery uses a variation of silver–oxide chemistry. Chemistry Characteristics History Mercury content Reserve battery. A reserve battery, also called stand-by battery, is a primary battery where part is isolated until the battery needs to be used. When long storage is required, reserve batteries are often used, since the active chemicals of the cell are segregated until needed, thus reducing self-discharge.  A reserve battery is distinguished from a backup battery, in that a reserve battery is inert until it is activated, while a backup battery is already functional, even if it is not delivering current.
Uses These batteries are used in radiosondes, missiles, projectile and bomb fuzes, and various weapon systems. While not advertised as reserve batteries, the principle is illustrated by the sale of "dry charged" car batteries where the electrolyte is added at the time of sale. Activation In missiles, reserve batteries typically use a small container of pressurized air to force the electrolyte from storage tank into the battery.
Types Some reserve batteries are: References Pulvermacher's chain. Fig. 1. Pulvermacher's chain. The handles pointing away from the holder are insulated so that the physician can safely place the device in contact with any part of the patient's body. The Pulvermacher chain, or in full as it was sold the Pulvermacher hydro-electric chain, was a type of voltaic battery sold in the second half of the 19th century for medical applications. Its chief market was amongst the numerous quack practitioners who were taking advantage of the popularity of the relatively new treatment of electrotherapy, or "electrification" as it was then known. Its unique selling point was its construction of numerous linked cells, rendering it mechanically flexible. A variant intended to be worn wrapped on part of the body for long periods was known as Pulvermacher's galvanic chain or electric belt.
The Pulvermacher Company attracted a great deal of antagonism from the medical community due to their use of the names of well-known physicians in their advertising without permission. Lemon battery. Diagram showing three lemon cells wired together so that they energize the red light emitting diode (LED) at the top. Each individual lemon has a zinc electrode and a copper electrode inserted into it; the zinc is colored gray in the diagram.
The slender lines drawn between the electrodes and the LED represent the wires. The lemon battery is similar to the first electrical battery invented in 1800 by Alessandro Volta, who used brine (salt water) instead of lemon juice. The lemon battery illustrates the type of chemical reaction (oxidation-reduction) that occurs in batteries. The zinc and copper are called the electrodes, and the juice inside the lemon is called the electrolyte. There are many variations of the lemon cell that use different fruits (or liquids) as electrolytes and metals other than zinc and copper as electrodes. Use in school projects Variations Potato battery with zinc (left) and copper electrodes.
Learning outcomes Chemical 2H++ 2e− → H2 . Paper battery. A paper battery is an ultra-thin electric battery engineered to use a spacer formed largely of cellulose (the major constituent of paper). It incorporates nanoscale structures to act as high surface-area electrodes to improve the conduction of electricity. Paper batteries are thin, flexible and environment-friendly, allowing integration into a wide range of products. Their functioning is similar to conventional chemical batteries with the important difference that they are non-corrosive and do not require a bulky housing. There are many uses for this new technology, including health care to power tiny medical diagnostic equipment and even drug delivery transdermal patches. A German healthcare company called KSW Microtech is already using the battery to power monitoring of the temperature of blood supplies.
This technology can also be used in supercapacitors. Development This cellulose based spacer is compatible with many possible electrolytes. Durability Uses Organic radical battery. An organic radical battery (ORB) is a relatively new type of battery first developed in 2005. This type of battery is generally not available for the consumer, however their development is approaching practical use. ORBs are potentially more environmentally friendly than conventional metal-based batteries, because they use organic radical polymers, which are flexible plastics, instead of metals to provide electrical power. ORBs are considered to be a high-power alternative to the Li-ion battery. Functional prototypes of the battery have been researched and developed by different research groups and corporations including the Japanese corporation NEC. Current ORB research is being directed mostly towards Hybrid ORB/Li-ion batteries because organic radical polymers with appropriate electrical properties for the anode are difficult to synthesize. Applications Function Synthesis of Radical Polymers Free-radical polymerization RAFT-mediated polymerization
Mercury battery. Mercury battery "РЦ-53М", Russian manufactured in 1989 History The mercury oxide-zinc battery system was known more than 100 years ago but did not become widely used until 1942, when Samuel Ruben developed a balanced mercury cell which was useful for military applications such as metal detectors, munitions, and walkie-talkies. The battery system had the advantages of long shelf life (to 10 years) and steady voltage output. After the Second World War the battery system was widely applied for small electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers and hearing aids.
Mercury oxide batteries were made in a range of sizes from miniature button cells used for hearing aids and electric wrist watches, cylindrical types used for portable electronic apparatus, rectangular batteries used for transistor radios, and large multicell packs used for industrial applications such as radio remote control for overhead crane systems. Chemistry HgO + H2O + 2e− → Hg + 2OH− Zn + HgO → ZnO + Hg. Lithium–air battery. Originally proposed in the 1970s as a possible power source for battery electric vehicles, Li-air batteries recaptured scientific interest in the late 2000s due to advances in materials technology and an increasing demand for renewable energy sources.
The major appeal of the Li-air battery is the extremely high specific energy, a measure of the amount of energy a battery can store for a given weight. A lithium-air battery has an energy density (per kilogram) comparable to gasoline. Li-air batteries gain this advantage in specific energy since they use oxygen from the air instead of storing an oxidizer internally. The technology requires significant advances in multiple fields before a viable commercial implementation can be developed. Four approaches are active: aprotic, aqueous, solid state, and mixed aqueous/aprotic. Metal-air batteries, specifically zinc-air, have received attention due to the potential for high energy densities.
History Operation Lithium battery. This article is about disposable lithium batteries. It is not to be confused with Lithium-ion battery. Lithium 9 volt, AA, and AAA sizes. The top unit has three lithium-manganese dioxide cells internally, the bottom two are lithium-iron disulfide single cells physically and electrically compatible with 1.5 volt zinc batteries. They stand apart from other batteries in their high charge density (long life) and high cost per unit. Depending on the design and chemical compounds used, lithium cells can produce voltages from 1.5 V (comparable to a zinc–carbon or alkaline battery) to about 3.7 V. Lithium batteries are widely used in products such as portable consumer electronic devices. History Description The term "lithium battery" refers to a family of different chemistries, comprising many types of cathodes and electrolytes.
Diagram of lithium button cell battery with MnO2 (manganese dioxide) at cathode Chemistries Applications Sizes and formats Popularity Lemon battery. Diagram showing three lemon cells wired together so that they energize the red light emitting diode (LED) at the top. Each individual lemon has a zinc electrode and a copper electrode inserted into it; the zinc is colored gray in the diagram. The slender lines drawn between the electrodes and the LED represent the wires. A lemon battery is a simple battery often made for the purpose of education. Typically, a piece of zinc metal (such as a galvanized nail) and a piece of copper (such as a penny) are inserted into a lemon and connected by wires. The lemon battery is similar to the first electrical battery invented in 1800 by Alessandro Volta, who used brine (salt water) instead of lemon juice. The lemon battery illustrates the type of chemical reaction (oxidation-reduction) that occurs in batteries. The zinc and copper are called the electrodes, and the juice inside the lemon is called the electrolyte.
Use in school projects Variations Learning outcomes Leclanché cell. Grove cell. Galvanic cell. Frog battery. Earth battery. Dry cell. Daniell cell. Clark cell. Chromic acid cell. Bunsen cell.
Aluminium-ion battery. Aluminium–air battery. Alkaline battery.