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Contrary to popular belief, the sailors of Columbus's day did not think they would sail right off the edge of the earth. They were, however, apprehensive about what they would find in their travels. Mistakes about marine life have ranged from inaccurate assumptions about the behavior of known species to fanciful depictions of animals that "might" exist. Year: 1570 Scientist/artist: Abraham Ortelius Originally published in: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Now appears in: Monsters of the Sea by Richard Ellis This excerpt of a map of Iceland by a Flemish cartographer shows sea monsters that many believed inhabited the surrounding waters. Larger image available Year: 1570 Scientist/artist: Abraham Ortelius Originally published in: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Now appears in: "Early Modern Brave New World?"
A grimoire ( pron.: / ɡ r ɪ m ˈ w ɑr / ) is a textbook of magic . Such books typically include instructions on how to create magical objects like talismans and amulets , how to perform magical spells, charms and divination and also how to summon or invoke supernatural entities such as angels , spirits , and demons . [ 1 ] In many cases, the books themselves are also believed to be imbued with magical powers, though in many cultures, other sacred texts that are not grimoires, such as the Bible and the Qur'an , have also been believed to have magical properties intrinsically; in this manner while all books on magic could be thought of as grimoires, not all magical books could. [ 2 ]