Wheeler's delayed choice experiment. Wheeler's delayed choice experiment is actually several thought experiments in quantum physics, proposed by John Archibald Wheeler, with the most prominent among them appearing in 1978 and 1984. These experiments are attempts to decide whether light somehow "senses" the experimental apparatus in the double-slit experiment it will travel through and adjusts its behavior to fit by assuming the appropriate determinate state for it, or whether light remains in an indeterminate state, neither wave nor particle, and responds to the "questions" asked of it by responding in either a wave-consistent manner or a particle-consistent manner depending on the experimental arrangements that ask these "questions.
" Delayed choice quantum eraser. A delayed choice quantum eraser, first performed by Yoon-Ho Kim, R.
Yu, S.P. Kulik, Y.H. Shih and Marlan O. Quantum eraser experiment. The double-slit quantum eraser experiment described in this article has three stages: First, the experimenter reproduces the interference pattern of Young's double-slit experiment by shining photons at the double-slit interferometer and checking for an interference pattern at the detection screen.Next, the experimenter marks through which slit each photon went, without disturbing its wavefunction, and demonstrates that thereafter the interference pattern is destroyed.
This stage indicates that it is the existence of the "which-path" information that causes the destruction of the interference pattern.Third, the "which-path" information is "erased," whereupon the interference pattern is recovered. Elitzur–Vaidman bomb tester. Bomb-testing problem diagram.
A - photon emitter, B - bomb to be tested, C,D - photon detectors. Mirrors in the lower left and upper right corners are half-silvered. In physics, the Elitzur–Vaidman bomb-testing problem is a thought experiment in quantum mechanics, first proposed by Avshalom Elitzur and Lev Vaidman in 1993. An actual experiment demonstrating the solution was constructed and successfully tested by Anton Zeilinger, Paul Kwiat, Harald Weinfurter, and Thomas Herzog from the University of Innsbruck, Austria and Mark A.
Kasevich of Stanford University in 1994. It employs a Mach–Zehnder interferometer for ascertaining whether a measurement has taken place. Schrödinger's cat. Schrödinger's cat: a cat, a flask of poison, and a radioactive source are placed in a sealed box.
If an internal monitor detects radioactivity (i.e. a single atom decaying), the flask is shattered, releasing the poison that kills the cat. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics implies that after a while, the cat is simultaneously alive and dead. Yet, when one looks in the box, one sees the cat either alive or dead, not both alive and dead. Popper's experiment. Popper's experiment is an experiment proposed by the philosopher Karl Popper.
As early as 1934 he was suspicious of, and was proposing experiments to test, the Copenhagen interpretation, a popular subjectivist interpretation of quantum mechanics. Popper's experiment is a realization of an argument similar in spirit to the thought experiment of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (the EPR paradox) although not as well known. There are various interpretations of quantum mechanics that do not agree with each other. Bell test experiments. Bell test experiments or Bell's inequality experiments are designed to demonstrate the real world existence of certain theoretical consequences of the phenomenon of entanglement in quantum mechanics which could not possibly occur according to a classical picture of the world, characterised by the notion of local realism.
Under local realism, correlations between outcomes of different measurements performed on separated physical systems have to satisfy certain constraints, called Bell inequalities. John Bell derived the first inequality of this kind in his paper "On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox". Bell's Theorem states that the predictions of quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced by any local hidden variable theory. The term "Bell inequality" can mean any one of a number of inequalities satisfied by local hidden variables theories; in practice, in present day experiments, most often the CHSH; earlier the CH74 inequality.
Stern–Gerlach experiment. Basic theory and description Quantum spin versus classical magnet in the Stern–Gerlach experiment Basic elements of the Stern–Gerlach experiment.
The Stern–Gerlach experiment involves sending a beam of particles through an inhomogeneous magnetic field and observing their deflection. The results show that particles possess an intrinsic angular momentum that is closely analogous to the angular momentum of a classically spinning object, but that takes only certain quantized values. Another important result is that only one component of a particle's spin can be measured at one time, meaning that the measurement of the spin along the z-axis destroys information about a particle's spin along the x and y axis. Davisson–Germer experiment. History and Overview According to Maxwell's equations in the late 19th century, light was thought to consist of waves of electromagnetic fields and matter was thought to consist of localized particles.
However, this was challenged in Albert Einstein’s 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect, which described light as discrete and localized quanta of energy (now called photons), which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. In 1927 Louis de Broglie presented his thesis concerning the wave-particle duality theory, which proposed the idea that all matter displays the wave-particle duality of photons. According to de Broglie, for all matter and for radiation alike, the energy E of the particle was related to the frequency of its associated wave ν by the Planck relation: And that the momentum of the particle p was related to its wavelength by what is now known as the de Broglie relation: where h is Planck's constant.
Double-slit experiment. The double-slit experiment is a demonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles; moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena.
The experiment belongs to a general class of "double path" experiments, in which a wave is split into two separate waves that later combine back into a single wave. Changes in the path lengths of both waves result in a phase shift, creating an interference pattern. Another version is the Mach–Zehnder interferometer, which splits the beam with a mirror. This experiment is sometimes referred to as Young's experiment and while there is no doubt that Young's demonstration of optical interference, using sunlight, pinholes and cards, played a vital part in the acceptance of the wave theory of light, there is some question as to whether he ever actually performed a double-slit interference experiment.