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{t} Operations

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◥ University. {q} PhD. {t} Themes. {t} Operations. ⚫ UK. ⚫ England. ⬤ London. Operations management. Ford Motor car assembly line: the classical example of a manufacturing production system. According to the United States Department of Education, operations management is the field concerned with managing and directing the physical and/or technical functions of a firm or organization, particularly those relating to development, production, and manufacturing. Operations management programs typically include instruction in principles of general management, manufacturing and production systems, factory management, equipment maintenance management, production control, industrial labor relations and skilled trades supervision, strategic manufacturing policy, systems analysis, productivity analysis and cost control, and materials planning.[1][2] Management, including operations management, is like engineering in that it blends art with applied science.

People skills, creativity, rational analysis, and knowledge of technology are all required for success. History[edit] In 1913 Ford W. Strategy. Strategy (Greek "στρατηγία"—stratēgia, "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship"[1]) is a high level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty. Strategy is important because the resources available to achieve these goals are usually limited.

Henry Mintzberg from McGill University defined strategy as "a pattern in a stream of decisions" to contrast with a view of strategy as planning,[2] while Max McKeown (2011) argues that "strategy is about shaping the future" and is the human attempt to get to "desirable ends with available means". Dr. Vladimir Kvint defines strategy as "a system of finding, formulating, and developing a doctrine that will ensure long-term success if followed faithfully. Management theory[edit] Alfred Chandler wrote in 1962 that: "Strategy is the determination of the basic long-term goals of an enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these goals. Military tactics. Military tactics can be described as the science and art of organizing a military force, and the techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle.[1] Changes in philosophy and technology over time have been reflected in changes to military tactics.

In current military thought, tactics are the lowest of three planning levels. The highest tier of planning is the strategy, which is about how force is translated into political objectives, or more specifically how you bridge the means and ends of war together. An intermediate level, which converts strategy into tactics is the operational level that deals with formations of units. In common vernacular, "tactical" decisions are those made to achieve greatest immediate value and "strategic" decisions are those made to achieve the greatest overall value irrespective of immediate return. Concept[edit] See also[edit] List of military tactics References[edit] Notes[edit] Bibliography[edit]

Management. Etymology[edit] The verb 'manage' comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle, especially tools), which derives from the Latin word manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.[1] Definitions[edit] Views on the definition and scope of management include: Management is defined as the organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectivesFredmund Malik defines as Management is the transformation of resources into utility.Management included as one of the factors of production - along with machines, materials and moneyPeter Drucker (1909–2005) sees the basic task of a management as twofold: marketing and innovation.

Nevertheless, innovation is also linked to marketing (product innovation is a central strategic marketing issue). Theoretical scope[edit] Nature of managerial work[edit] Senior management. Senior management, executive management, or management team is generally a team of individuals at the highest level of organizational management who have the day-to-day responsibilities of managing a company or corporation. They hold specific executive powers conferred onto them with and by authority of the board of directors and/or the shareholders.

There are most often higher levels of responsibility, such as a board of directors and those who own the company (shareholders), but they focus on managing the senior or executive management instead of the day-to-day activities of the business. The executive management typically consists of the heads of the firm's product and/or geographic units and of functional executives such as the chief financial officer, the chief operating officer, and the chief strategy officer.[1] In Project Management, senior management is responsible for authorising the funding of projects.[2] Positions[edit] Chief Executive Officer (CEO) See also[edit] Line officer. Officers who are not line officers are those whose primary duties are in non-combat specialties including chaplains, attorneys (only Army and Navy), supply and medical services. The distinction between line and non-line officers often blur; line officers may be assigned non-combat roles, and non-line officers are often assigned to tasks normally performed by line officers.

Also, non-line officers at the squadron or Group level (and higher) are also issued "G-Series" orders which gives them the same relative power of 'line officers' of equivalent rank. A line officer may even hold authority over a non-line officer of higher rank by the nature of their job, but is otherwise expected to observe normal customs and courtesies outside that role. See explanation of staff and line. History[edit] United States forces[edit] [edit] In the United States Navy, line officers are divided into unrestricted line officers and restricted line officers.

United States Marine Corps[edit] Other forces[edit] Scientific management. Frederick Taylor (1856-1915), lead developer of scientific management Scientific management, also called Taylorism,[1] was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. Its main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management. History[edit] Its development began with Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s within the manufacturing industries.

Its peak of influence came in the 1910s; by the 1920s, it was still influential but had begun an era of competition and syncretism with opposing or complementary ideas. Although scientific management as a distinct theory or school of thought was obsolete by the 1930s, most of its themes are still important parts of industrial engineering and management today.

Scientific management's application was contingent on a high level of managerial control over employee work practices. Soldiering[edit] Total quality management. Total quality management (TQM) consists of organization-wide efforts to install and make permanent a climate in which an organization continuously improves its ability to deliver high-quality products and services to customers. While there is no widely agreed-upon approach, TQM efforts typically draw heavily on the previously-developed tools and techniques of quality control. TQM enjoyed widespread attention during the late 1980s and early 1990s before being overshadowed by ISO 9000, Lean manufacturing, and Six Sigma. History[edit] In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the developed countries of North America and Western Europe suffered economically in the face of stiff competition from Japan's ability to produce high-quality goods at competitive cost.

Development in the United States[edit] From the Navy, TQM spread throughout the US Federal Government, resulting in the following: Features[edit] The key concepts in the TQM effort undertaken by the Navy in the 1980s include:[11] Joseph M. [edit] Organization. An organization (or organisation) is a social entity, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, itself derived from the better-known word ergon which means "organ" .

Types of organization[edit] There are a variety of legal types of organizations, including corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, armed forces, charities, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, universities, and various types of political organizations. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector simultaneously, fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. Organizational structures[edit] The study of organizations includes a focus on optimizing organizational structure. Committees or juries[edit] Committees are often the most reliable way to make decisions. Systems analysis. Systems analysis is the study of sets of interacting entities, including computer systems analysis. This field is closely related to requirements analysis or operations research.

It is also "an explicit formal inquiry carried out to help someone (referred to as the decision maker) identify a better course of action and make a better decision than he might otherwise have made. "[1] Overview[edit] The terms analysis and synthesis come from Greek where they mean respectively "to take apart" and "to put together". These terms are used in scientific disciplines from mathematics and logic to economics and psychology to denote similar investigative procedures. Information technology[edit] The development of a computer-based information system includes a systems analysis phase which produces or enhances the data model which itself is a precursor to creating or enhancing a database (see Christopher J. Another view outlines a phased approach to the process. Practitioners[edit] See also[edit] Productivity. Increasing national productivity can raise living standards because more real income improves people's ability to purchase goods and services, enjoy leisure, improve housing and education and contribute to social and environmental programs.

Productivity growth also helps businesses to be more profitable.[1] Characteristics of production[edit] Economic well-being is created in a production process, meaning all economic activities that aim directly or indirectly to satisfy human needs. The degree to which the needs are satisfied is often accepted as a measure of economic well-being. The satisfaction of needs originates from the use of the commodities which are produced.

Economic well-being also increases due to the growth of incomes that are gained from the growing and more efficient production. Main processes of a producing company[edit] Main processes of a producing company (Saari 2006,3) real process.income distribution processproduction process.monetary value process. Why is Productivity Growing Faster? Business process reengineering. Business Process Reengineering Cycle Business process re-engineering is a business management strategy, originally pioneered in the early 1990s, focusing on the analysis and design of workflows and business processes within an organization. BPR aimed to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to dramatically improve customer service, cut operational costs, and become world-class competitors.[1] In the mid-1990s, as many as 60% of the Fortune 500 companies claimed to either have initiated reengineering efforts, or to have plans to do so.[2] BPR seeks to help companies radically restructure their organizations by focusing on the ground-up design of their business processes.

According to Davenport (1990) a business process is a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined business outcome. Business process re-engineering is also known as business process redesign, business transformation, or business process change management. Overview[edit] Six Sigma. The common Six Sigma symbol Six Sigma is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. It was developed by Motorola in 1986.[1][2] Jack Welch made it central to his business strategy at General Electric in 1995.[3] Today, it is used in many industrial sectors.[4] Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods, mainly empirical, statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization ("Champions", "Black Belts", "Green Belts", "Yellow Belts", etc.) who are experts in these methods.

Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified value targets, for example: reduce process cycle time, reduce pollution, reduce costs, increase customer satisfaction, and increase profits. Doctrine[edit] Methodologies[edit] Lean manufacturing. Overview[edit] The difference between these two approaches is not the goal itself, but rather the prime approach to achieving it. The implementation of smooth flow exposes quality problems that already existed, and thus waste reduction naturally happens as a consequence. The advantage claimed for this approach is that it naturally takes a system-wide perspective, whereas a waste focus sometimes wrongly assumes this perspective. Both lean and TPS can be seen as a loosely connected set of potentially competing principles whose goal is cost reduction by the elimination of waste.[5] These principles include: Pull processing, Perfect first-time quality, Waste minimization, Continuous improvement, Flexibility, Building and maintaining a long term relationship with suppliers, Autonomation, Load leveling and Production flow and Visual control.

Origins[edit] Lean aims to make the work simple enough to understand, do and manage. A brief history of waste reduction thinking[edit] 20th century[edit] Work in process. Work in process,[1][2][3][4] work in progress,[5][6][7] (WIP) goods in process,[8] or in-process inventory are a company's partially finished goods waiting for completion and eventual sale or the value of these items.[9] These items are either just being fabricated or waiting for further processing in a queue or a buffer storage.

The term is used in production and supply chain management. Optimal production management aims to minimize work in process. Work in process requires storage space, represents bound capital not available for investment and carries an inherent risk of earlier expiration of shelf life of the products. A queue leading to a production step shows that the step is well buffered for shortage in supplies from preceding steps, but may also indicate insufficient capacity to process the output from these preceding steps.

Barcode and RFID identification can be used to identify work items in process flow. WIP in construction projects[edit] See also[edit] Lean manufacturing.

☢️ Metrics

Effectiveness. Efficiency.