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Neuroscience of free will refers to recent neuroscientific investigation of questions concerning free will . It is a topic of philosophy and science . One question is whether, and in what sense, rational agents exercise control over their actions or decisions. As it has become possible to study the living brain , researchers have begun to watch decision making processes at work. Findings could carry implications for moral responsibility in general. Moreover, some research shows that if findings seem to challenge people's belief in the idea of free will itself then this can affect their sense of agency (e.g. sense of control in their life). [ 1 ] [ 2 ]
This list is a follow up to Top 10 Common Faults in Human Thought . Thanks for everyone’s comments and feedback; you have inspired this second list! It is amazing that with all these biases, people are able to actually have a rational thought every now and then. There is no end to the mistakes we make when we process information, so here are 10 more common errors to be aware of.
In psychoanalytic literature, a Madonna–whore complex is the inability to maintain sexual arousal within a committed, loving relationship. [ 1 ] First identified by Sigmund Freud , this psychological complex is said to develop in men who see women as either saintly Madonnas or debased prostitutes . Men with this complex desire a sexual partner who has been degraded (the whore) while they cannot desire the respected partner (the Madonna). [ 2 ] Freud wrote: "Where such men love they have no desire and where they desire they cannot love." [ 3 ] Clinical psychologist Uwe Hartmann, writing in 2009, stated that the complex "is still highly prevalent in today's patients". [ 2 ] In sexual politics the view of women as either Madonnas or whores limits women's sexual expression, offering two mutually exclusive ways to construct a sexual identity. [ 4 ] The duality implies that women must assume subservient roles, either as madonnas to be protected or as whores to be punished by men. [ 5 ]
SELF REFLECTION: Bodily illusions teach neuroscientists about the sense of self. Image: crimfants, flickr.com Where are you right now? Maybe you are at home, the office or a coffee shop—but such responses provide only a partial answer to the question at hand. Asked another way, what is the location of your "self" as you read this sentence? Like most people, you probably have a strong sense that your conscious self is housed within your physical body, regardless of your surroundings.