GMAO - Research. Animation 1. Aerosol optical thickness of black and organic carbon (green), dust (red-orange), sulfates (white), and sea salt (blue) from a 10 km resolution GEOS-5 "nature run" using the GOCART model. The animation shows the emission and transport of key tropospheric aerosols from August 17, 2006 to April 10, 2007. A still from this animation can be seen at NASA's Image of the Day. [ Download this animation: Full size (684MB) | Reduced size (327MB). ] Note: If this animation does not stream properly, please wait a few minutes and try again, or use the download links provided. Aerosols play an important role in both weather and climate. They are transported around the globe far from their source regions, interacting with weather systems, scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation, and modifying cloud micro- and macro-physical properties.
They are recognized as one of the most important forcing agents in the climate system (Forster et al. 2007). Animation 2. References: Atmospheric missions / Copernicus. Atmospheric missions One of the most mature uses of Earth-observation data is in weather predication. For several decades now, near-realtime meteorological satellite images have been at the heart of our daily weather bulletins. Numerous atmospheric chemistry instruments and various techniques are also used to measure the composition of Earth's atmosphere. These data are used in a wide range of applications, such as operational meteorology, volcanic eruption monitoring, air quality forecasts, for climate studies and to support policy making. Copernicus Contributing Missions carrying atmospheric instruments complement the Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5 missions and include the following: Calipso CalipsoThe US-French Calipso mission is part of NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder programme.
Launched in 2006, it carries a cloud-aerosol lidar, an imaging infrared radiometer and a wide-field camera to provide data clouds and aerosols. Envisat Merlin Meteosat Second Generation MetOp. Sentinels -4/-5 and -5P / Copernicus. Sentinels -4/-5 and -5P The Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5 missions are dedicated to monitoring the composition of the atmosphere for Copernicus Atmosphere Services. Both missions will be carried on meteorological satellites operated by Eumetsat. To be carried on the geostationary Meteosat Third Generation satellites, the Sentinel-4 mission comprises an Ultraviolet Visible Near-infrared (UVN) spectrometer and data from Eumetsat's thermal InfraRed Sounder (IRS), both embarked on the MTG-Sounder (MTG-S) satellite.
After the MTG-S satellite is in orbit, the Sentinel-4 mission also includes data from Eumetsat's Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) embarked on the MTG-Imager (MTG-I) satellite. To be carried on the polar-orbiting MetOp Second Generation satellite, the Sentinel-5 mission comprises an Ultraviolet Visible Near-infrared Shortwave (UVNS) spectrometer and data from Eumetsat's IRS, the Visible Infrared Imager (VII) and the Multi-viewing Multi-channel Multi-polarization Imager (3MI).
MACC Project - Project Description. MACC-III - Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation - is the current pre-operational Copernicus Atmosphere Service. MACC-III provides data records on atmospheric composition for recent years, data for monitoring present conditions and forecasts of the distribution of key constituents for a few days ahead. MACC-II combines state-of-the-art atmospheric modelling with Earth observation data to provide information services covering European air quality, global atmospheric composition, climate forcing, the ozone layer and UV and solar energy, and emissions and surface fluxes. Visit this page for more details about the project. If you are interested in sustainability of the services please visit this page. Aerosols: Tiny Particles, Big Impact : Feature Articles. A previous version of this article, written in 1999, is now archived as a PDF file. By Adam Voiland Design by Robert Simmon November 2, 2010 Take a deep breath.
Even if the air looks clear, it’s nearly certain that you’ll inhale tens of millions of solid particles and liquid droplets. These ubiquitous specks of matter are known as aerosols, and they can be found in the air over oceans, deserts, mountains, forests, ice, and every ecosystem in between. They drift in Earth’s atmosphere from the stratosphere to the surface and range in size from a few nanometers—less than the width of the smallest viruses—to several several tens of micrometers—about the diameter of human hair.
Despite their small size, they have major impacts on our climate and our health. Aerosols—tiny, airborne solid & liquid particles—are present throughout the atmosphere and largely responsible for hazy skies, as in this photograph of Shenzen, China. Sea salt, dust, and volcanic ash are three common types of aerosols. Aerosols / Space for our climate. Aerosols Tiny dust particles and droplets suspended in the atmosphere have a definite influence on our climate, but we are a long way from defining precisely the role that aerosols play.
That they do have an effect was established more than a decade ago. Volcanic dust Mount Pinatubo devastated the Philippines when it erupted in 1991, forcing half a million people from their homes. The largest eruption for a century, its wider effects was felt across the world. It shot 20 million tonnes of volcanic ash particles and sulphur dioxide droplets high into the stratosphere. This mass of aerosols stayed circling the globe for three weeks – and temporarily reversed the effects of global warming. This incident highlighted another fact about atmospheric aerosols – their normal background levels have been increasing steadily over time, with uncertain results. Aerosol loading Modelling climate Aerosols are largely absent from current climate models, and their effects are difficult to quantify. MACC Project - Home. Meteosat. Climate studies to benefit from 12 years of satellite aerosol data / Space for our climate.
Climate studies to benefit from 12 years of satellite aerosol data Aerosol optical depth measured by SEVIRI 10 November 2009 Aerosols, very small particles suspended in the air, play an important role in the global climate balance and in regulating climate change. They are one of the greatest sources of uncertainty in climate change models. ESA's GlobAerosol project has been making the most of European satellite capabilities to monitor them. Using data from the Along Track Scanning Radiometer-2 on the ERS-2 satellite, the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer and the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Envisat and the Spinning Enhanced Visible & InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instrument on the Meteosat Second Generation, GlobAerosol has produced a global aerosol dataset going back to 1995.
Wind-blown dust Aerosol optical depth for 2007 Results of the pilot studies were presented during ESA’s Atmospheric Science Conference held in Barcelona, Spain, in September. Atmosphere : All Images. Overview / Space for our climate. Atmosphere Overview Side-on from space, our atmosphere appears as a thin sliver of orange and blue. For all life on Earth, it functions as a combined life support system and protective shield. It supplies us with the air we breathe and protects us against harmful radiation. Something in the air However science has established that the composition of our atmosphere is changing, and the long-term consequences are unknown.
The most significant result so far has been global warming although we remain unsure of just how high temperatures could rise. Mapping the invisible To know more we have to see more. Instruments already in orbit can detect holes in the thinning ozone layer, plumes of aerosols and pollutants hanging over major cities or burning forests, and exhaust trails left in the atmosphere by commercial airliners.
Watching the sky Satellites in orbit will witness the way our atmosphere functions as a dynamic system, and how it reacts to human inputs. About GOSAT - GOSAT Project. The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite "IBUKI" (GOSAT) is the world's first spacecraft to measure the concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane, the two major greenhouse gases, from space (Figure 1). The spacecraft was launched successfully on January 23, 2009, and has been operating properly since then.
Through analyzing the GOSAT observational data, scientists will be able to ascertain the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and how the sources and sinks of these gases vary with seasons, years, and locations. These new findings will enhance scientific understanding on the causes of global warming. Also, they will serve as fundamental information for improving climate change prediction and establishing sound plans for mitigating global warming. The GOSAT Project is a joint effort of the Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Home Page - Orbiting Carbon Observatory. Sentinel-6 / Copernicus. Sentinels -4/-5 and -5P / Copernicus. Sentinel-3 / Copernicus. Sentinel-3 The Sentinel-3 mission's main objective is to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour with high-end accuracy and reliability in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring.
Sentinel-3 builds directly on a proven heritage pioneered by ERS-2 and Envisat. Its innovative instrument package includes: A Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), which is based on Envisat's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), to determine global sea-surface temperatures to an accuracy of better than 0.3 K. The SLSTR improves the along-track-scanning dual-view technique of AATSR and provides advanced atmospheric correction. SLSTR measures in nine spectral channels and two additional bands optimised for fire monitoring. The pair of Sentinel-3 satellites will enable a short revisit time of less than two days for OLCI and less than one day for SLSTR at the equator.
Introducing Sentinel-2 / Sentinel-2 / Copernicus. The Sentinels are a fleet of satellites designed specifically to deliver the wealth of data and imagery that are central to the European Commission’s Copernicus programme. This unique environmental monitoring programme is making a step change in the way we manage our environment, understand and tackle the effects of climate change and safeguard everyday lives. Sentinel-2 carries an innovative wide swath high-resolution multispectral imager with 13 spectral bands for a new perspective of our land and vegetation. The combination of high resolution, novel spectral capabilities, a swath width of 290 km and frequent revisit times will provide unprecedented views of Earth.
The mission is based on a constellation of two identical satellites in the same orbit, 180° apart for optimal coverage and data delivery. Together they cover all Earth’s land surfaces, large islands, inland and coastal waters every five days at the equator. Introducing Sentinel-1 / Sentinel-1 / Copernicus. The Sentinels, a new fleet of ESA satellites, are poised to deliver the wealth of data and imagery that are central to Europe’s Copernicus programme. By offering a set of key information services for a broad range of applications, this global monitoring programme makes a step change in the way we manage our environment, understand and tackle the effects of climate change, and safeguard everyday lives. The first in the series, Sentinel-1, carries an advanced radar instrument to provide an all-weather, day-and-night supply of imagery of Earth’s surface. The C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) builds on ESA’s and Canada’s heritage SAR systems on ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and Radarsat.
As a constellation of two satellites orbiting 180° apart, the mission images the entire Earth every six days. The mission will benefit numerous services. Sentinel-1 is the result of close collaboration between the ESA, the European Commission, industry, service providers and data users. Metop. Visualizations | Aqua Project Science. Space in Videos - 2014 - 03 - Monitoring changing ice with Sentinel-1. Space in Videos - 2014 - 02 - Sentinel-2. Space in Videos - 2014 - 03 - Sentinel-1: watching every move. Space in Videos - 2013 - 12 - Sentinel-3 over ice. Metop. S Living Planet Programme / The Living Planet Programme. ESA's Living Planet Programme ESA's Living Planet Programme ESA has been dedicated to observing Earth from space ever since the launch of its first Meteosat meteorological satellite in 1977. Following the success of this first mission, the subsequent series of Meteosat satellites, ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat provided us with a wealth of valuable data about Earth, its climate and changing environment.
It is crucial, however, that we continue to learn more about our planet if we are to understand the Earth system and its processes, especially within the context of global change. This will equip us better for predicting the effects a changing climate may bring. As our quest for knowledge continues to grow, so does our demand for accurate satellite data to be used for numerous practical applications for protecting and securing the environment. In addition, the Copernicus Sentinel missions, which form part of the Copernicus Space Component, will collect robust, long-term climate-relevant datasets.
Overview / Copernicus. Overview Observing our planet for a safer world Copernicus is the most ambitious Earth observation programme to date. It will provide accurate, timely and easily accessible information to improve the management of the environment, understand and mitigate the effects of climate change and ensure civil security. Copernicus is the new name for the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security programme, previously known as GMES. This initiative is headed by the European Commission (EC) in partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA). ESA coordinates the delivery of data from upwards of 30 satellites. Sentinel-1 radar vision ESA is developing a new family of satellites, called Sentinels, specifically for the operational needs of the Copernicus programme.
Sentinel-2, launched on 23 June 2015, is designed to deliver high-resolution optical images for land services and Sentinel-3 will provide data for services relevant to the ocean and land. Copernicus. Mission overview / Envisat. Mission overview Envisat soars into orbit Launched on 1 March 2002 on an Ariane-5 rocket from Europe’s spaceport in French Guyana, Envisat was the largest Earth observation spacecraft ever built. The eight-tonne satellite orbited Earth more than 50 000 times over 10 years – twice its planned lifetime. The mission delivered thousands of images and a wealth of data used to study the workings of the Earth system, including insights into factors contributing to climate change.
Contact with Envisat was suddenly lost on 8 April 2012. But ten years of Envisat’s archived data continues to be exploited for studying our planet. The high-tech machine was engineered by a European consortium of companies from 13 countries under the lead of Astrium Germany (MIPAS, Sciamachy) with big contributions for the platform and on the instrumentation side from the UK (ASAR, AATSR) and France (GOMOS). ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar): the largest single instrument on board. Envisat, artist's impression. Latest EU Sentinel satellite to track global food crops - BBC News. Space in Videos - 2013 - 12 - Sentinel-3 over ice. Introduction. ESA’s next Earth Explorer satellite / Press Releases / For Media / ESA.
Mission overview / Envisat. Copernicus. Overview / Copernicus. ESA's Living Planet Programme / The Living Planet Programme. EarthImages Lite. Rapid Scanning Service — EUMETSAT. Meteosat — EUMETSAT. 0 Degree Service — EUMETSAT. Untitled. Introducing Sentinel-1 / Sentinel-1 / Copernicus. Space in Videos - 2014 - 01 - Sentinel-1. Scientists Get a Real "Rise" Out of Breakthroughs in How We Understand Changes in Sea Level. Assessment of global megatrends — an update. Balancing the sea-level budget / Space for our climate. Is Europe an underestimated sink for carbon dioxide? Join the virtual classroom / Space for our climate. ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) / Space for our climate.
GCOS: About GCOS. Www.esa-cci.org. OSTM/Jason-2. 02 - Sentinel-1 constellation. SVS: Five-Year Global Temperature Anomalies from 1880 to 2013 (id 4135) SVS: Five-Year Global Temperature Anomalies from 1880 to 2013 (id 4135) Space in Videos - 2014 - 01 - Sentinel-3. Sentinel-3 / Copernicus. GIM Sentinel-2A Set to Provide Impressive Earth Images. Catalog of Earth Satellite Orbits : Feature Articles. Electromagnetic Waves - different waves, different wavelengths. GMM: Thermal Radiation and the Electromagnetic Spectrum (id 11005) Ship Tracks off North America. SVS: Aqua Satellite and MODIS Swath (id 3348) Satellite Orbits — EUMETSAT. Visualizations | Aqua Project Science. SVS: Earth Science Heads-up Display (id 4205) Terra | The EOS Flagship. NASA Aquarius Mission. Aqua Project Science. Results. PI Community.
Home. Browse Data Products. How to get Earth observation data. Meteosat — EUMETSAT. Introducing Sentinel-1 / Sentinel-1 / Copernicus. Total Rainfall & Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly : Global Maps. Integrating Earth Observation in your job. Earth Observation users speak. Space in Videos - 2014 - 01 - Sentinel-3. Space in Videos - 2014 - 03 - Sentinel-1: seeing through clouds. SVS: NASA Earth Observing Fleet including Landsat 8 (id 4070) SVS: Earth Science Heads-up Display (id 4205) SVS: Aquarius Satellite & Data Pre-launch Beauty Shot (id 3830) NASA Aquarius Mission. Introducing Sentinel-1 / Sentinel-1 / Copernicus. Sentinel-3 / Copernicus. Sat Track App. Sat Track App. Introduction to the Electromagnetic Spectrum - Mission:Science. Climate and Earth’s Energy Budget : Feature Articles. CEOS. How does Earth Observation work? International Cooperation — EUMETSAT. Untitled. Glossary. Carbon dioxide satellite mission returns first global maps - BBC News. EU launches flagship Sentinel satellite project to monitor Earth - BBC News.